Published: 2022-04-27

Factors associated with the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Embakasi Central Sub-County, Nairobi City County

Ceciliah N. Wambogo, Alloys S. S. Orago, John P. Oyore


Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) complications are the second leading cause of death in pregnant women globally, trailing only anaemia. Despite the fact that urinary tract infection (UTI) has been a threat to public health in Nairobi for the past five years, especially in the Embakasi Central sub-county, no studies on the occurrence of ASB and related factors have been conducted in Nairobi County.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional analytical design study was conducted in five wards of Embakasi central sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya. A questionnaire and routine urine microscopy were used to collect data from 369 expectant women attending ANC in selected facilities. independent t test and chi-square tests were between the independent and dependent variables at p≤0.05.

Results: The respondents were 26 years old on average, majority of the women had attained secondary education (46.7%, n=172), were married (66%, n=241) and professed Christianity (72.2%, n=265). The proportion of women in employment (52%, n=192) was slightly higher than the unemployed (48%, n=175). The occurrence of ASB was significantly higher in first trimester as compared to the other trimesters (p=0.000). Also, the occurrence of ASB differed significantly by religion (p=0.002) and by employment status (p=0.003). Most of the expectant mothers had heard of ASB, mainly from health care workers (58.9%, n=119) or the media (31.7%, n=64). ASB was more likely to occur in women who had never heard of ASB (p=0.000).

Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB is relatively higher than the rest of the African continent. Knowledge levels, religion, family sizes, trimester of pregnancy and employment status were strongly linked to ASB. Consequently, a number of interventions and policy recommendations have been made in this paper.


Asymptomatic bacteria prevalence, Antenatal clinics, Factors associated

Full Text:



Schnarr J, Smaill F. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Investigation. 2008;38:50-57.

Gordon J, Jenkins H, Blannin J. National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health Clin Guideline. 2008;1-213.

Ayoyi AO, Kikuvi G, Bii C, Kariuki S. Prevalence, aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity profile of asymptomatic bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women in selected antenatal clinic from Nairobi, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;26(1):1-12.

Sultan A, Rizvi M, Khan F, Sami H, Shukla I, Khan H. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens: Is fosfomycin the answer? Urol Ann. 2015;7(1):26.

Sujatha R. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India. JCDR. 2014;8(4):DC01-3.

Bookallil M, Chalmers E, Bell A. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities. Rural Remote Health. 2005;5(3):1-9.

Tchente Nguefack C, Okalla Ebongue C, Nouwe Chokotheu C, Ebong Ewougo C, Nana Njamen T, Mboudou E. Clinical presentation, risk factors and pathogens involved in bacteriuria of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of 3 hospitals in a developing country: a cross sectional analytic study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):143.

Schmidt NA, Brown JM. Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research. Fourth edition. Jones and Bartlett Learning. 2019;4.

Kenya Health Information System [KHIS]. Kenya Health Information System. Published 2022. Available at: Accessed on March 27, 2022.

Enayat K, Fariba F, Bahram N. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran. Int Braz J Urol. 2008;34:699-707.

Olamijulo JA, Adewale CO, Olaleye O. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women in Lagos. J Obstetr Gynaecol. 2016;36(6):722-5.

Ullah MA, Barman A, Siddique MA, Haque A. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its consequences in pregnancy in a rural community of Bangladesh. Bang Med Res Council Bull. 2007;33(2):60-4.

Ojide CK, Wagbatsoma VA, Kalu EI, Nwadike VU. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal care women in a tertiary hospital in Benin, Nigeria. Niger J Exp Clin Biosc. 2014;2(2):79.

Fatima N, Ishrat S. Frequency and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons-Pakistan: JCPSP. 2006;16(4):273-5.

Rajaratnam A. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. JCDR. 2014;8(9):OC23-5.