International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health <p>The <strong>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH)</strong> is an open access, international, monthly, peer-reviewed journal publishes articles of authors from India and abroad with special emphasis on original research findings that are relevant for developing country perspectives including India.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research articles, focusing on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology and social medicine, invited annotations and comments, invited papers on recent advances, clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and management review article, short communication/brief reports, letters to the editor, case reports, etc. The journal covers population based studies, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation, systematic review, meta-analysis, clinic-social studies etc., related to any domain and discipline of public health, especially relevant to national priorities, including ethical and social issues. Articles aligned with national health issues and policy implications are preferred. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2394-6032</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2394-6040</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Community Med Public Health.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a title="PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101711371, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalId=31416" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalID=32537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScopeMed</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23946032&amp;uid=r5af96" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> Medip Academy en-US International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2394-6032 A systematic review of knowledge, attitude, practice and health impacts of self-medication among COVID-19 affected people in South Asia <p>The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication and its health impact among South Asian people. This systematic review was conducted at the Department of Public Health, under the Faculty of Health Sciences of University of Sunderland, United Kingdom (UK) during December 2020 to December 2022.For this study, a comprehensive literature review was conducted on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of self-medication among COVID-19-affected adults aged 18 and older in South Asian nations The design of this review was completed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)-2019 were used to identify the methodological problems in each individual study report. In this systematic review ten qualifying studies were examined with a total of (n=5137) study subjects. Among the study subjects, 2211 (43.04%) COVID 19 afflicted People had enough knowledge of self- medication followed 2001 (38.95%) COVID19 affected people in South Asia had a favorable attitude toward self-medication, 2906 (56.56%) people had performed self-medication and 206 (4.01%) had adverse impacts on their health. Bangladesh and India had the greatest and lowest rates of self-medication, 88.3% and 17.9%, respectively. In addition, the greatest rate of self-medication was seen among medical students in Pakistan (83%). This study investigated that during the COVID-19 Pandemic, self-medication was very common, with over half of the study population engaging in it. Therefore, it is vital to enhance the public awareness about the adverse effects of self-medication without having proper knowledge.</p> <p> </p> Sanjana Asma Mohammad Anarul Islam Patrick Tohi Saira Hakkim Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2866 2877 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241851 Efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy versus antibiotics as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: a systematic review <p>Treating aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is quite challenging. Conventional treatment for aggressive periodontitis involves systemic antibiotics (AB) with scaling and root planing (SRP). However, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) presents a promising alternative due to its targeted action and reduced side effects. This suggests the need to analyse and compare both treatments to determine the best approach for effective management of AgP. A systematic literature searches in three databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane, and a hand search of relevant scientific journals was performed. The eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel-group design, comparing aPDT to AB as adjuncts to SRP for treating AgP. Studies published in English language between January 2003 and December 2023 were included. Studies were assessed for quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials version 2 (RoB 2) and were classified as high-quality studies. Five RCTs meeting eligibility criteria were selected and underwent qualitative analysis. The clinical parameters assessed in studies were Pocket Probing Depth (PPD), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Two studies reported significant improvements in all parameters with both therapies, three studies indicated a greater reduction in clinical parameters in the AB group compared to aPDT. Adjunctive use of AB with SRP results in significant clinical outcomes compared to SRP and aPDT. According to the studies of this systematic review 4-5 applications of aPDT with an interval of 7 days, and a follow-up period of 6 months are beneficial in treating AgP.</p> Akanksha Gugale Shaila V. Kothiwale Shahanaz Shaik Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2878 2886 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241852 Impact of ambient and indoor air pollution on birth weight: a systematic review <p>The global burden of disease caused by particulate matter exposure has increased significantly. Increasing epidemiological evidence indicates that ambient particulate matter pollution is associated with unfavorable health outcomes, including adverse birth outcomes. In addition to several determinants studies have correlated birth weight with prenatal exposure to particulate matter. This review aims to examine the relationship of pollutants with low birth weight. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. A total of 96 studies were reviewed and 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In India exposure to ambient PM2.5 is strongly associated with low birth-weight. In Thailand, the entire pregnancy exposure was associated with reduced birth weight both for PM10 and biomass burning. The multiple GAM model have shown a direct and significant relationship between exposure to PM10 and SO<sub>2</sub> on low birth weight. A 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in gap-filled satellite-based whole-pregnancy PM2.5 exposures was associated with a change in birth weight. The critical window period for exposure varied between the geographical locations. All of this research is subjected to several limitations regarding the assessment of outcome-exposure. We demonstrated that, maternal exposure to particulate matter during the pregnancy could increase the risk of low birth weight, and the critical window period differed for geographical locations. These findings expand our knowledge of the harmful effects of PM2.5 and biomass burning on new-born weight. Therefore, pregnant women should be informed about the negative consequences of air pollution and avoid exposure to polluted air during pregnancy.</p> Jasmine S. Sundar Hema Priya A. S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2887 2894 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241853 Teaching reform and practice of medical parasitology under the perspective of “one health” <p>The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China underscored the significance of prioritizing people's health as a development strategy. Due to global warming, the rapid expansion of tourism, escalating population migration, and the excessive exploitation of natural resources, the frequency of zoonotic and foodborne parasitic diseases is increasing, posing a grave threat to the well-being of humans, animals, and the environment, which is collectively known as “One Health”. Parasitology is an indispensable discipline in the domains of animal medicine, environmental health, and food safety, particularly in the context of the “One Health” initiative. By integrating the concept of “one health” into parasitism teaching practices, we aim to transform traditional teaching methods, refresh educational resources, and enhance the quality of education. This comprehensive approach is designed to emphasize the interconnectedness of medical parasitism with animal medicine, environmental conservation, and societal development. By doing so, we aim to meet the evolving needs of the new era and emerging medical sciences, fulfilling the aspirations of being a “trusted doctor of the people and the party”. Ultimately, this approach will contribute to building a stronger and healthier human community, enhancing students' understanding, capabilities, and appreciation of the “One Health” paradigm.</p> Wei Zhao Baolong Yan Huicong Huang Shaohui Liang Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2948 2952 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241862 Update of modified Kuppuswamy scale for the year 2024 <p>Socioeconomic status (SES) serves as a pivotal determinant influencing the health outcomes of individuals and families. This multifaceted indicator not only encapsulates an individual's occupational status and income but also encompasses their access to resources, education, and social support networks. SES provides critical insights that help address disparities by allowing for the tailoring of development projects and government initiatives to meet the specific needs of diverse communities. This, in turn, promotes equitable growth and enhances access to quality education and healthcare. By leveraging socioeconomic data, policymakers can craft more inclusive economic and social policies, fostering a more just and balanced society.</p> Irena Mandal Samar Raesa Hossain Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2945 2946 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241863 Enhancing the study on pediatric sleep hygiene <p>The article delves into various aspects such as school performance, BMI, and sleep habits. However, it doesn’t provide additional demographic details like gender or grade level, apart from mentioning the participants’ ages. A study done by Mandy Pascalle Glasbeek et al shows that sleep reduction is more common in girls and older aged adolescents. Sleep is essential for promoting development, brain function, and emotional control from infancy onward. The study’s conclusions are concerning as well as illuminating. In the study more than half of the children who took part had poor sleep quality, it is clear that pediatric healthcare providers should pay more attention to sleep hygiene. The link between poor sleep quality and both childhood weight and poor academic achievement is especially concerning. The results highlight the complex relationship between sleep and children's general health and wellbeing.</p> Priyanka K. Borkar Neha Gawarle Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2947 2947 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241864 Leadership, and management style and influence on healthcare worker’s job satisfaction and productivity: a scoping review <p>The purpose of this scoping review is to employ Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review methodology to determine leadership and management styles and their influence on health worker’s job satisfaction and productivity in Low-and middle-income countries. A scoping review of literature published in English since May, 2012 was carried out using PubMed, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and Sage. Key search terms strategy was employed using the words “leadership styles”, “management styles”, “health workers”, “productivity” and “job satisfaction” to identify relevant studies. A total of 1487 articles resulted from the application of the search strategy. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria of which 18 was quantitative and 1 was qualitative study. The main leadership styles identified were transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style, laissez-faire leadership style and autocratic leadership style. Transformational leadership style was found to have a higher influence on job satisfaction as compared to the other forms leadership styles. Also, transformational leadership styles encouraged about 67% of health workers to provide better healthcare services to their patients. Health facilities in LMICs have employed mainly transformational, transactional, participatory and laissez-faire leadership styles that have varying degree of influence on health workers job satisfaction. Transformational leadership style has proven to positively influence job satisfaction and productivity while laissez-faire leadership demotivate healthcare workers. In order to improve health care services and productivity for client as well as job satisfaction for healthcare workers, transformational leadership trainings will have to be intensified.</p> Maxwell Kwame Dzokoto Benjamin Tetteh Mensah Ivy Akushika Agbenu Peter Muriuki Gatheru Michael Deladem Kwashie Kyerewaa Akuamoah Boateng Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2926 2934 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241859 The impact of Flexner's report on medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan as an example <p>Flexner’s Report 1910 is one of the most important and influential events in the history of medicine worldwide that led to the emergence of modern medical education. reforms of medical education took places as results of this report leading to the establishment of the biomedical model as the gold standard of medical training. Objectives: to identify the impact of Flexner's Report on Medical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa taking Sudan as an example more than 100 years after the report. The health system and medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era and after independence were studied. Conclusion: Medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa has not yet received a holistic review, reforms, and standardization and the health system needs more educational strategic planning. Multiple factors play a role in preventing the modernization of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as the poor economic status of these countries, inadequate infrastructure, equipment, and educational standards, large annual students intake, and lack of appropriately qualified teaching staff.</p> Masoud I. Adam Ibrahim A. Eljac Ayman M. El-Ashkar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2935 2938 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241860 Intracoronal esthetic restorative materials in pediatric dentistry: concepts revisited <p>A plethora of restorative materials currently exist to repair carious teeth in children, and numerous options are available for restoring primary and young permanent incisors and molars esthetically. Intracoronal esthetic restorations most commonly used for primary and young permanent dentition include direct restorative materials mainly as composite resins, glass ionomer cement, their modifications, and indirect restorative materials like laboratory-processed inlays, onlays, overlays, and endo-crown prostheses. A pediatric dentist needs to be aware of the composition, indications, advantages, and limitations associated with these restorative materials to employ them judiciously in children. However, the clinical data is insufficient to suggest the most superior type of restoration to be used in pediatric patients. Through this platform; the authors discuss esthetic restorative treatment alternatives along with established recommendations and directions for future developments, familiarizing clinicians with evidence for and against the use of appropriate materials for pediatric restorative dentistry.</p> Vivek Mehta Nikhil Srivastava Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2939 2944 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241861 Validation of the colposcopic report for screening intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer <p>For optimal cervical cancer care pathway, effective communication among colposcopist professionals regarding colposcopic findings, diagnosis, and treatment of intraepithelial lesions is crucial; standardization of the colposcopic report may serve as a beneficial strategy for this purpose. Elaborate and validate the colposcopic report for screening intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer using a committee of specialists. This validation study used the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) to verify the agreement of judges per item, and the scale-level content validity index (S-CVI) to determine the mean of the proportion of items classified as "no disagreement"; items with an I-CVI≥0.80 and S-CVI≥0.90 were considered approved. The binomial test was used to select the items that should be revised based on the p value of the proportion (rejecting the H0 if p≤0.8); statistical significance was set at p&lt;0.05. Results: Seven judges participated in this study. The 11 items of the Colposcopic Report were validated, but items classified as “disagreement” (1, 2, 5, and 9) or “neither agree nor disagree” (3, 10, and 11) were taken to a consensus meeting. Six of the seven judges of the first stage participated in the consensus meeting. Suggestions for modifying item nine were not accepted, and item 11 underwent a slight modification. The colposcopic report was validated and achieved greater reliability, suggesting its inclusion in the cancer information system.</p> Leticia M. C. Katz Ana L. R. de Vasconcelos Sydia R. de A. Oliveira Júlio C. P. Resende Andre L. Carvalho Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2895 2900 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241854 Caffenol-C: a viable alternative to conventional radiographic developer <p>Current radiographic developers are considered detrimental and hence there is a constant quest for less harmful products. Caffenol-C a liquid concoction of household materials is considered as an alternative photographic developing agent. However, its usage in radiology has not been evaluated. Considering this, the present work was conducted to assess the utility of caffenol-C in processing dental radiographs. 2.6 g of instant coffee and vitamin C powder is mixed in 22.5 ml of water. Then 1.6 g of washing soda is dissolved in another 22.5 ml of water. Both the solutions are then mixed to make the final caffenol-C preparation. The preparation is then used for processing of dental radiographs and evaluated for its diagnostic quality. Radiographs developed with caffenol-C preparation showed excellent contrast and density. The optimum developing time was found to be 10 min. The present work observed that the radiographs processed with caffenol-C preparation had good diagnostic quality and thus it appears to be a viable alternative.</p> Sankaran Sudhakar Sundar Shreenivas Couppoussamy Rajkumar Sumathi Jones Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2901 2903 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241855 Physicochemical, proximate and sensory evaluation of pearl millet and pigeon pea based nutrient dense mix <p>Severe acute malnutrition serves a high risk of mortality among children aged 6-59 months. At a community level anganwadi centers play a vital role in identifying malnutrition among children and enabling resources for growth and development. The aim of this study was to develop a nutrient dense mix using pearl millet and pigeon pea and evaluate its sensory, physicochemical and proximate properties. The nutrient dense mix was formulated using pearl millet and pigeon pea in several variations and the best accepted variation was selected through sensory evaluation and analyzed for its physiochemical and proximate composition. Variation 3 of the nutrient dense mix prepared by balancing pearl millet with rice had the highest acceptability in all sensory parameters. It had favorable physicochemical properties including water solubility index (20.1%), swelling power (3.7%) and low moisture content (3.7%). The proximate analysis revealed high energy (347.10±0.85 kcals), protein (14.28±0.04 g), fat (19.53±0.03) and calcium content (154.63±2.2 mg). The percentage adequacy of the nutrients from the nutrient dense mix showed that 31.27% of energy as per the estimated average requirements was met for 1-3 year olds and 25.5% for 4-6 year olds. The high sensory acceptability, low cost and good micro and macronutrient profile encourages further exploration for the product in curbing malnutrition.</p> <p> </p> Maryam Fairoz Ahmed Sangeeta Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2904 2911 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241856 Bilateral alloplastic temporomandibular joint reconstruction with orthognathic surgery: a case report of idiopathic condylar resorption <p>Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) also known as cheerleader’s syndrome, progressive condylar resorption, idiopathic condylysis, and condylar atrophy can be defined as chronic ongoing changes of condylar shape and decrease in mass. It is characterized by an excessive physical stress to the articular structures of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that exceeds the normal adaptive capacity. Consequently, leading to decrease condylar head volume, decrease ramus height, progressive mandibular retrusion in adults, or decreased growth rate in adolescents. A case report of a 30-year-old female based on the history, clinical, and radiographic examination has class II skeletal relationship secondary to bilateral ICR, receded chin, vertical maxillary excess (VME) and canting. Surgical treatment plan was established using 3D Systems, Inc., (“3DS”) VSP® and case was managed by bilateral total alloplastic temporomandibular joint reconstruction (BATMJR) with orthognathic surgery to do LeFort I, bilateral condylectomy, genioplasty, and inferior border osteotomy. The case report includes one-year follow-up which shows stable outcome, emphasizing long-term success of comprehensive treatment strategy in addressing skeletal class II malocclusion associated with ICR.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Yasser S. Alali Khaled M. Al Habeeb Khaled A. Al Malhook Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2912 2920 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241857 Application of warm water foot bath therapy for stage two hypertension clients in the family context <p>Hypertension is often regarded as a silent killer because the disease often causes no symptoms in the sufferers. This disease does not only need treatment, but family support is required to prevent and treat family members who are suffering. The objective of the study is to analyze the application of warm water for foot bath therapy to lower blood pressure in people suffering from hypertension. The design used is descriptive with case studies, through family nursing process. Monitoring of warm water foot bath was carried out for 3 days, before and after measuring the blood pressure Results: there was a decrease in blood pressure after 3 days of action. In family 1, the initial blood pressure was 160/90 mmHg, after 3 days of action it decreased to 145/85 mmHg. Family 2 before therapy 150/100 mmHg, decreased to 140/86 mmHg after soaking feet in warm water. The decrease in blood pressure observed in both families was more than 10 mmHg. The application of foot bath therapy using warm water which is carried out for 3 days, is effective in reducing blood pressure in hypertension cases. Suggestions are recommended for families and subjects to be able to apply independently warm water foot bath therapy and carry out routine blood pressure checks at the nearest healthcare facility.</p> <p> </p> Dely Maria Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2921 2925 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241858 To what extent do community members participate in planning, implementing health programs within their communities and what are the benefits of their participation in Nigeria? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Community participation in health programs helps drive collaborations between the formal health structures and informal health system actors in promoting health at the community level. This paper provides new information on the extent of community participation in the planning and implementation of community-based health programs in Nigeria as a trajectory for strengthening the health system.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a qualitative study. Data was collected from three located in different geographic zones of Nigeria. Two local governments (rural and urban) with evidence of health programs were purposively selected in each state. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The data was transcribed, coded manually and analysed thematically.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Several health programs were identified in the community. It was found that while community leaders are hardly involved in conceptualizing and planning health programs, however, they participate in program implementation by mobilizing community resources and encouraging members to take advantage of available health activities. Our findings also showed increased benefits of the involvement of the informal health workers in the health system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Community participation and involvement in health as part of community health system (CHS) activities has led to better and well-improved services, increased willingness to access immunization services. Communities are readily available to contribute to health activities, but they should be involved in the initiation and planning of health activities for ownership and full participation. This would improve health outcomes and contribute to strengthening the community health system.</p> Nwadiuto Chidinma Ojielo Enyinnaya Etiaba Obinna Onwujekwe Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2518 2527 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241804 Clinico-socio demographic characteristics of neonates at NICU, Mediciti Hospital, Medchal, Telangana, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Children face the greatest risk of disease and death in their first 28 days. Improvements in basic neonatal care such as thermoregulation and breastfeeding have substantially reduced neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is still a need to strengthen the provision of advanced care for neonates. Identifying factors impacting neonatal mortality and morbidity and addressing them through a package of evidence-based interventions are essential to avoiding preventable deaths.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The current study analyses data from a cross-sectional study in the rural outreach area of a tertiary hospital in Hyderabad, India to assess clinical and socio-demographic factors affecting neonatal morbidity. One hundred and fifty neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit and their mothers were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain responses through face-to-face interview. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using R Statistical Software (version 4.3.2).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 150 neonates, 99 (66%) neonates were admitted for respiratory distress. 39 (26%) males were low birth weight and 28 (18.67%) females were low birth weight. There was no significant association between low birth weight, high risk pregnancy and gender of the neonate. A significant association was obtained between low socio-economic status and low birth weight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Neonatal mortality and morbidity can be attributed to several factors including neonatal characteristics, maternal characteristics, health infrastructure and health manpower. However, prevalence of socio-demographic risk factors affecting neonates is disproportionately higher in low- and middle-income countries. A multi-pronged approach is required to address the multimodal causation of low birth weight and morbidity in neonates.</p> Anusha Dunnapothula Leo S. Vaz Sameer Valsangkar Suguna Dummpala Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 11 7 2528 2532 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241598 Analyzing the incidence, survival, and demographic trends of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia <p><strong>Background:</strong> B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare disease, consisting &lt;1% of mature B-cell malignancies. B-PLL is often refractory to chemotherapy, with a median survival of 3 years. Due to its rarity, no large cohort studies exist elucidating outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> All B-PLL patients &gt;15 years were identified in the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 2000-2020. Statistical analysis explored demographic variables like age; categorized as adolescent or young adult (AYA) and adults. In adults, differences in survival due to factors such as sex, race/ethnicity, household income, rurality, and age categorized in 10-15 year buckets was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> B-PLL patients were predominantly white (78%), over 40 years (96%) and mostly residing in metropolitan areas (90%). Interestingly, the AYA cohort were mostly female (70%). 35% of the AYA patients were Hispanic, while being only 9% in adults. Among adults, the rate of Asian/Pacific-Islander patients that were alive at the time of the data query was 53% compared to 34% in Hispanic, 31% in black, and 24% in white patients (p=0.025). Younger age was also associated with greater chances of survival (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In line with known poor prognosis of the disease, 23% patients were alive at the time of data query. Female and Hispanic patients were overrepresented in the AYA age group. In the adult group Asian/Pacific-Islander patients had better survival outcomes, as did younger patients. Further research is necessary to explore why B-PLL incidence in AYA patients is higher among Hispanic and females.</p> Kingsley Nnawuba Ifeanyi Uche Samantha Robinson Obed Asare Tochukwu Nzeako Anup Kumar Trikannad Ashwini Kumar Hanna Jensen Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2533 2539 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241805 The prevalence of atopic dermatitis and the effect of breastfeeding on atopic dermatitis among Saudi infants aged up to six months in the Al Madinah region <p><strong>Background: </strong>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin condition in infants, and breastfeeding has been proposed as a potential protective factor. The study aims to investigate the prevalence of AD in infants based on guardians' reports and the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and formula feeding on the incidence of AD among Saudi infants in the Al Madinah region. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional survey of 200 mothers with infants was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Data collected included demographics, breastfeeding practices, infant characteristics, allergies, and AD diagnosis. Statistical analysis employed chi-square.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were a total of 200 infants, out of which 145 (72.5%) had AD, as confirmed by pediatricians. Gender was significantly associated with the prevalence of AD. Based on their nutritional source, 62 (42.8%) were on EBF, and 83 (57.2%) were non-EBF. Infant nutrition was found to be significantly associated with the hospitalization time of infants because of AD. Other AD risk factors, such as parental allergies, feeding frequencies, and frequency of AD episodes, were not significantly associated with the type of feeding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study found that AD is quite prevalent in the Al Madinah region of Saudi Arabia. AD was more prevalent in male infants than in females. It suggests that EBF may be a protective factor against hospitalization of Saudi infants because of AD.</p> Osman Suliman Nusaybah E. Alanzi Joud S. Alahmadi Zayed M. Alnefaie Ghala S. Alahmadi Aqeelah A. Almadhlouh Emad A. Alsaedi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 11 7 2540 2545 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241619 Prevalence of work-related lower back pain and psychosocial impacts in dentistry <p><strong>Background:</strong> In dentistry, musculoskeletal (MSK) pain creates a significant occupational health hazard jeopardizing the efficient delivery of care to the patients. There are several factors linked to the job that contribute to the higher incidence of MSK pain among dental practitioners. Uncomfortable postures and movements, frequent and prolonged working hours, the amount of time spent with each patient are some of the work-related factors of work related lower back pain which need to be addressed to prevent the disabling effects in the long run. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of work related lower back pain and significance of associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Self-administered questionnaire were distributed to 384 dental practitioners who were working in various clinics in Saudi Arabia. This survey had four sections with questions related to demographic data, clinical practice, ergonomic principles, and psychosocial impacts. Descriptive statistics including chi-square analyses and associated significance were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The relationship between age, years of experience and back pain among dental professionals was found to be significant with back pain lasting between 1 to 7 days in 34.2% among the participants. Older individuals with more experience tend to use back braces, analgesics, and physiotherapy more often. The cumulative prevalence of back pain in the study was 42.2%, with the majority of participants working for 2-8 hours per day. Various types of back strain injuries were observed across age groups and experience levels. Psychosocial impacts like job dissatisfaction and missed workdays were more pronounced in older individuals. The type of dental work and sitting posture also influenced back pain in specific age groups with significant associations observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our study sheds light on the significant issue of MSK pain among dental practitioners in Saudi Arabia, emphasizing its complex nature involving physiological, ergonomic and psychosocial factors. Found high prevalence of MSK pain, especially lower back discomfort, linked to factors like sitting postures and long working hours.</p> Manju Roby Philip Rawaf Al Ghamdi Abdulaziz Halwani Fahad Al Masoudi Hatim Najmi Eyad Al Nakhli Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 11 7 2546 2553 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241620 Effect of the mindfulness-based program on stress, anxiety and physiological changes among nurse aid students attending the 9 months course of nurse aid training in Myanmar <p><strong>Background:</strong> Suffering under stress and anxiety was a big challenge for the majority of nurse aid students and it was requisite to pass the 9 months training without attrition to become a qualified nurse aid.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> From 1st week of February to 4th week of May, 2023, 104 nurse aid training students (51 participants in intervention group and 53 participants in control group) from 7 tertiary hospitals in the Yangon Region were conducted by a quasi-experimental study. Data collection was done by asking questionnaire for stress and anxiety, and by collecting blood samples to test serum cortisol level. Data was analysed by using SPSS 23 and independent t-test, one-way repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression with propensity score adjustment were applied.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean changes (before- after- followed up) in the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and in the Generalized Disorder Scale (GAD) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups displaying a difference in difference mean change of 4.13 (2.41, 5.86) at p&lt;0.001, 3.02 (95%CI: 1.05, 4.99) at p=0.003 and that of 2.45 (95% CI: 1.24, 3.66), p&lt;0.001, 1.49 (95%CI: 0.16, 2.83) at p=029 respectively. Moreover, there was a significant decrease (before-after 8 week intervention) in the serum cortisol level between two groups showing a difference in difference mean change of 39.66 (95% CI: 4.97, 74.34), p=0.026.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study might observe as supportive evidence of the mindfulness-based program to manage stress and anxiety among nurse aid students. </p> Aung Lin Aye Hla Hla Win Mya Thandar Soe Min Oo Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2554 2562 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241806 Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 among Residence in Mombasa County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Infectious disease pandemic of COVID-19 continues to be a global &amp; public health challenge. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of the people towards COVID-19 is critical to the understanding the epidemiological dynamics of the disease. This study sought to assess the awareness of Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted in Mombasa between September-October, 2020. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data collected were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression tests. A total of 422 participants completed the survey questionnaire. A p&lt;0.05 was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age was 29.55 years (SD: 10.7), 252 (59.72%) were female, and 170 (40.28%) were male. Majority 255 (60.4%) were aged between 18-29 years while 200 (47.38%) and 162 (38.39%) were educated up to secondary and university level respectively. Knowledge scores significantly differed across genders, age-groups, categories of marital status, education levels (p&lt;0.05). The mean COVID-19 knowledge score was 7.45 (SD: 1.51), suggesting an overall 62% (7.45/12×100) correct rate on this knowledge test. The majority of the respondents agreed that COVID-19 will finally be successfully controlled (66.35%) and this was significant (p&lt;0.05). The vast majority of the participants had not visited any crowded place (88.35%) and wore masks when going out (74.31%) in recent days.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The knowledge about COVID-19 in the Mombasa County population during the outbreak was acceptable, attitudes have been mostly favourable and the practices are mostly adequate.</p> Shadrack A. Yonge Bob O. Opiyo Bibi A. Bakari Abbas A. Shamsudin Rekha R. Sharma Betty Sharon Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2563 2570 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241807 Heavy metal contamination of cooked foods hawked at Chuka town in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Contamination of cooked foods with heavy metals is an emerging global concern, particularly due to the associated health outcomes and economic considerations. These chemicals are introduced into cooked foods mainly through poor food handling practices and sometimes from their natural milieu such as soil, water, or air.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study analysed 151 food samples collected from 151 hawkers of cooked foods in Chuka town. The samples were analysed for lead, cadmium, and copper using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) assisted by closed microwave digestion.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The concentration of lead in the food samples ranged from ˂0.001 to 0.7 mg/kg with a mean of 0.207±0.16, cadmium ranged from ˂0.001 to 0.933 with a mean of 0.105±0.195, while copper ranged from ˂0.001 to 2 mg/kg with a mean of 0.461±0.456. The recorded levels of copper were below the maximum allowable limits in all the food samples. However, 57 (37.7%) and 44 (29.1%) food samples were contaminated with lead and cadmium, respectively. Overall, more than half 86 (57%) of the hawked-cooked foods were contaminated with either lead, cadmium, or both lead and cadmium.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Cooked foods hawked at Chuka town are contaminated with either lead, cadmium, or both lead and cadmium. The County government of Tharaka Nithi to champion interventions on preventing the sale of contaminated cooked foods.</p> Cornellius M. Muendo Gideon Kikuvi Susan Mambo Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2571 2576 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241808 An assessment of socio-cultural challenges of social distancing as a means of COVID-19 control in Lagos state, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are attendant socio-cultural challenges of social distancing in controlling COVID-19 in developing countries which must be overcome. The objectives of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice on social distancing, to determine the socio-cultural challenges and assess the coping mechanisms to the socio-cultural challenges of social distancing as a means of COVID-19 control in Lagos state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that assessed the socio-cultural challenges of social distancing as a means of COVID-19 control in Lagos state, Nigeria. The study population included adults ≥18 years that have resided in Lagos state for more than six months. Respondents were recruited through the internet, using the social media platforms. A total of 500 responses were analysed. Quantitative analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, about 98.2% of the participants had adequate knowledge of social distancing as a means of COVID-19 control, 51% of the participants had positive attitude towards social distancing as a means of COVID-19 control, and about 98.2% of the participants practised social distancing. About a quarter (27.2%) saw social distancing as a violation of human right and 97% agreed that it affected education in schools. Internet-based communication, teleworking, financial compensation, support groups, health education and special attention to the vulnerable were indicated coping strategies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings showed significant socio-cultural challenges in implementing COVID-19 mitigating measures such as social distancing and recommended mass health education plus a good socio-economic support system will help promote the adoption of preventative guidelines.</p> Titilope O. Charles-Eromosele Blossom A. Maduafokwa Oluchi J. Kanma-Okafor Esther O. Oluwole Ezekiel S. Oridota Opeyemi O. Giwa Chioma J. Ibenye-Ugbala Aisha T. Abdulkareem Adesola A. Pitan Oluwadamilola A. Matti Adebayo T. Onajole Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2577 2586 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241809 Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the hypertensive patients in Wajir county, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is public health burden and rising rapidly in prevalence in developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. CKD increases with advancing age and comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, there is no data on CKD the prevalence and risk factors associated among the hypertensive adult patients in Wajir county. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and establishing risk factors associated with CKD among hypertensive patients in Wajir county and sought to recommend viable preventive measures.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional study design utilized, non-probability consecutive sampling was adopted to obtain sample size of 293 respondent attending medical outpatient clinic at Wajir county referral hospital between September to December 2023. The study utilised primary data that were collected using structured questionnaires and secondary data from the laboratory result.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Key findings revealed majority of hypertensive patients have CKD (45.40%), highlighting a critical health concern in the region. The study found most CKD cases were in early stages (stages 1 and 2), some had progressed to severe stages (stages 4 and 5). Regression analysis identified several demographic and clinical factors associated with CKD development, including age, gender, and education, and employment status, family history of CKD and difficulty in medication compliance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> there is high prevalence of chronic kidney disease among hypertensive adults in Wajir county. With nearly half of hypertensive patients also suffering from CKD, there is an undeniable public health crisis at hand in Wajir county. Study recommended initiation of targeted screening programs.</p> Abdirahman M. Ali Harun M. Kimani Gordon O. Ogweno Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2587 2591 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241810 Role of family support in the mental health status of physicians <p><strong>Background:</strong> The mental health and well-being of physicians are increasingly recognized as crucial factors not only for the individual physicians themselves but also for the quality of care they provide to patients. This study aimed to assess the role of family support in the mental health status of physicians.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Community Medicine in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2011 to June 2011. A total of 126 physicians were selected as study subjects as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. A convenience type of non-probability sampling technique was adopted in this study. GHQ- questionnaire was used for the measurement of mental stress. Different statistical methods were used in this study. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 17.0 for Windows was used to analyze the data. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 126 physicians 42 physicians (33.3%) had no evidence of mental stress, 42 physicians (33.3%) had mild mental stress, 29 physicians (23.0%) had moderate mental stress and only 13 physicians (10.3%) had severe mental stress. The study shows that among 32 physicians who didn't get help from family members majority i.e. 29 (90.7%) physicians had mental stress and only 3 (9.4%) physicians had no evidence of mental stress. But 94 physicians got help from family members among which 55 (58.5%) physicians had mental stress and 39 physicians or 41.5% physicians had no evidence of mental stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Family support plays a significant role in mitigating stress, while marital status, income, and work environment also impact well-being. Addressing these factors can foster a culture of physician well-being and improve patient care.</p> Afreen S. Danny Sharmeen T. Shovah M. Atiqul R. Khan Luna F. Hoque Muhammad N. Alam Asaduzzaman Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2592 2597 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241811 Assessment of nutritional status and health challenges among female garment workers: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The economic status of women is now accepted as an indicator of a society’s development in Bangladesh. Women workers like the majority in the informal sector have been exposed to rigorous work, discipline, fixed working hours, specific production norms etc. The aim of the study was to perform cross-sectional study was conducted to assess nutritional status of female garment workers in Chattogram, Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire to collect data from the respondents by face-to-face interview. Informed written consent was obtained from the respondents. A checklist containing height and weight (measured using measuring tape and digital weight machine respectively) of the respondents included in the questionnaire. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the study, gastrointestinal problem was reported by 49.7% and the rest reported problem were respiratory problem (35.3%), skin problem (27.3%), urinary problem (18%), eye problem (15%). Age, marital status, number of children, family member, monthly income, job section, working hours and overtime were significantly associated with various types of health problem. Respondents were categorized into underweight (≤18.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), normal (18.6-24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and overweight and above (≥25.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) using BMI. Prevalence of underweight, normal and overweight and above were 3.3%, 61.3% and 35.3% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Female worker’s age, marital status, number of children, monthly income, job duration, job section and overtime showed significant association with their nutritional status (BMI). Findings of this study may play an important role to develop a policy and in commercial sector of our country to reduce health problem of the female garment workers for better productive and healthy lifestyle.</p> Taslima Newaz Arup Dutta M. Shafiur Rahman Moynal Hossain M. Ahasanul Hoque Srobonti Dutta Purba Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2598 2605 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241812 Nutrient composition of cassava flour fortified with pumpkin leaves and its effects on post-prandial blood glucose level among diabetes patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> The nutritional and phytochemical content of cassava has shown many health benefits. However, the use of cassava for the control of diabetes and dyslipidemia is poorly researched. Hence this study aims to determine the effect of cassava flour fortified with pumpkin leaves on post-prandial blood glucose level.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research adopted an experimental study design. The fortified cassava flour was produced at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The flour was fortified in the ratio; 90:10 (sample-A), 70:30 (sample-B), and 50:50 (sample-C). The fasting and postprandial plasma of the subjects were taken using Rossmax and Accu Checker. The proximate and micronutrient composition of cassava were analyzed. The data analysis was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics, version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of the post-prandial effect (min/max) of control, sample A, B, and C, was 57/310 mg/dl, 102/282 mg/dl, 79/188 mg/dl, and 74/160 mg/dl respectively. Sample-B had the highest value in ash, protein, and crude fiber contents. Sample-C had the least protein. The control sample had the least fiber content. sample-A had the highest fat content. However, sample-B had the highest percentage of carbohydrate [96.89±0.03 (sample-B), 84.01±0.19 (sample-C), 83.32±0.02 (Control), and 79.35±0.75 (sample-A)]. The micro-nutrient of the control is lower than other samples with the exception of phosphorus. Sample-A had the highest value of potassium, iron, and calcium. Sample-B had the highest value for magnesium and phosphorus.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Sample-C had a lowering effect on the post-prandial blood level of the respondents.</p> Olanike O. Balogun Olajumoke P. Olaniran Motunrayo T. Oduneye Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2606 2613 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241813 Prevalence, resistant pattern and associated risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal clients in a municipal hospital in Ghana <p><strong>Background:</strong> The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was used to determine the prevalence of uro-pathogens among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic at Weija-Gbawe Municipal Hospital. The data was collected between May 2023 and October 2023. The data collection process involved the use of a structured questionnaire, while urine specimens were collected in sterile urine containers and cultured on CLED medium. The bacteria colonies were identified and evaluated for their susceptibility to antibacterial agents. Multiple logistics regression was used to determine the factors associated with bacteriuria among pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The age range of the participants was 14 years to 45 years with mean age of 30 years (SD±6.5). About 13% of the participants had no formal education. Majority (77.4%) of study participants were obese while only 3.42% had normal weight. Isolates were <em>Escherichia coli</em> (27%), <em>Klebsiella species</em> (23%), <em>Proteus species (18%)</em> and <em>Citrobacter koseri</em> (18%). Gentamicin was sensitive to <em>E. coli</em> and cotrimoxazole was the most resistant antibiotics. Factors such as BMI, educational level, smoking status, recurrent UTI, parity were not found to have statistical influence on prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study revealed 15.1% prevalence of ASB among pregnant women with <em>E. coli</em> being the predominate isolates. Gentamicin and cotrimoxazole were the most sensitive and resistant antibiotics respectively. Pregnant women should be advised to adhere to optimal hygiene practices and safe sexual behaviours, with a focus on the role of these practices in preventing uro-pathogen colonization.</p> Solomon D. Y. Kwashie Benjamin Tetteh Mensah Israel Attipoe Eric Akorly Victor A. Degenu Edward K. Kupeh Dominic Danyi William Osei-Owusu Maxwell Kwame Dzokoto Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2614 2623 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241814 Prevalence and neonatal outcomes of preterm born at Garissa county referral hospital, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Despite the significance of late preterm and early term neonates in neonatal health, comprehensive data on their prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and associated maternal sociodemographic and economic characteristics is grossly lacking in Garissa County, Kenya. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of late preterm (LPN) and early term neonates (ETN) born at Garissa County Referral Hospital (GCRH), relative to full-term neonates (FTN).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Singleton live neonates in the three groups were enrolled. Prevalence was computed as percentages of births in each category relative to total singleton live births during the study period. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess morbidity patterns, with statistical significance set at p&lt;0.05. Mortality rates were presented as total deaths per 1,000 live births within the first 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The LPN, ETN, and FTN had a prevalence of 8.47%, 11.86%, and 9.2%, respectively. Maternal age was significantly associated with gestational age (p=0.014; Φc=0.263), while other sociodemographic and economic characteristics were comparable across groups (p&gt;0.05). LPNs had lower odds of respiratory distress diagnosis on day 1 compared to ETNs (OR=-1.68896; 95% CI: -3.012335 to -0.365593; p=0.012). Mortality rates were comparable among gestational age categories (p=0.649).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Overall, the study shows that LPN and ETN are considerably prevalent in Garissa County and that, only maternal age impacts on gestational age. Targeted interventions, particularly for younger mothers, should be implemented to mitigate associated risks and improve neonatal outcomes.</p> Tom Amolo Rose Olayo Walter Otieno Gladys C. Esendi Evans Raballah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2624 2631 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241815 Comparison of platelet to lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes and women with preterm delivery <p><strong>Background:</strong> Considering the adverse effect of PROM on birth outcomes and the condition of mother and fetus, early identification of risk factors of PROM and their control can reduce the occurrence of adverse outcomes for mother and fetus and improve their health. This study was conducted with the aim of comparing PLR and NLR in women with PROM and women with preterm delivery.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This case-control study was conducted on 155 women with PPROM as case group and 155 women with preterm delivery as control group. Age, gestational age, type of delivery, baby's birth weight, gravida, parity, APGAR score, rate of hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), occurrence of neonatal sepsis and development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were recorded from women's medical records. Also, the results of blood tests and PLR and NLR values were calculated for each pregnant woman. Collected data were analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS version 24.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average gestational age and weight of babies at birth time in the case group were significantly lower than those with preterm delivery. The mean of NLR in case group with 4.8±2.5 was significantly higher than control group with 4.2±2.2. The mean of PLR in case group with 111.5±47.6 was significantly higher than control group with 100.98±43.4.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The high values of PLR and NLR in the women with PROM compared to women with preterm delivery can be a marker to identify the risk of PPROM in pregnant women. </p> Mahsa Khodadost Zahra Ghavami Rogayeh Dargahi Firouz Amani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2632 2636 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241816 A comparative study of ProRithm and standard monitoring techniques for non-invasive blood pressure measurement using photoplethysmography and electrocardiography signals through artificial intelligence/machine learning methods <p><strong>Background:</strong> Multi-parameter monitoring devices are essential for providing real-time patient data, which is crucial for effective healthcare interventions. This clinical trial evaluated the accuracy of the ProRithm beat-to-beat cuffless device for arterial blood pressure monitoring, comparing it with a standard sphygmomanometer.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This observational study included 30 subjects aged 18 and above. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements from both the ProRithm device and the Philips Monitor were compared using statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the ProRithm device and the manual method. In comparison with manual measurements using a sphygmomanometer, the mean systolic blood pressure was 131.2 mmHg with ProRithm it was 129.3 mmHg. Similarly, with the manual method, while the mean diastolic blood pressure was 76.2 mmHg and with ProRithm it was 75.9 mmHg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study indicates that portable, small-sized devices like ProRithm, which facilitate remote monitoring, are effective for real-time blood pressure assessment in clinical settings.</p> A. V. S. Suresh Vamsi Karatam Dileep Karedla Dinesh K. Babu Pallavi Jha Durga V. Bandireddy Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 11 7 2637 2641 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241611 Pattern of mobile use among medical students and its impact on health in GMC Jalaun <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mobile phone because of the ever availability and its mobility application has created a dramatic interest for youth in comparison with other communication technologies. Unfortunately, communication technology has some negative effects also. Constant usage and addiction to cell phones has affected the people physically, psychologically, and socially. Aims and objective were to assess the pattern and impact on health of mobile phone use among students of Government Medical College, Jalaun.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on GMC Jalaun from October to December (3 months). All students of MBBS final year part 1 were selected as sample, so total 98 students were selected in the study. Students were requested to complete a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our study shows that mobile phone use was very high among the medical students and 54.1% of them spending 4-6 hours per day. Most of the students were frequently using mobile phone for taking pictures, videos, playing games, listening to music and internet surfing other than for calling and messaging purpose. Majority of the students used mobile phones at night (62.2%). Majority were suffered from sleep disturbance (52.1%) followed by lack of concentration (47.9%) and behavioural disorder (36.8). Out of total students, 31.6% were having refracting error.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our study showed pattern of mobile phone use among the medical students and it was found that mobile phone use was very high among the medical students.</p> Santosh Kumar Verma Namrata Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2642 2645 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241817 Morbidity profiling of patients treated at Ayothidoss Pandithar Hospital of the National Institute of Siddha from 2004 to 2023 in Tamil Nadu, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Understanding the patient flow for health-seeking patterns and utilization of AYUSH care in India has been considered essential for a greater emphasis on mainstreaming and blending into the existing healthcare systems. This study examines the morbidity profiling of patients reporting to Ayothidoss Pandithar Hospital (APH) of the National Institute of Siddha (NIS), Chennai.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included new and old/revisit patients who attended the APH, Outpatient Department (OPD), special OPD, and Inpatient Department (IPD) from October 2004 to December 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Through OPD and IPD, APH has treated 98,94,373 cases and 7,61,754 cases, respectively. The average number of cases treated per day at OPD was 1484, and 115 in IPD. Men were higher in OPD and IPD. The more common diseases treated during 2012-2023 at OPD were <em>Madhumegam </em>(diabetes mellitus) 13% and <em>Azhal keelvayu</em> (osteoarthritis) 12% whereas, in IPD, it was <em>Thandagavatham</em> (lumbar spondylosis) 9.5% and <em>Pakkavatham</em> (hemiplegia) 9.4%. At APH, 9 X-ray investigations, 44 Varmam therapies, 37 Thokkanam therapies, 497 pathological, 433 biochemical investigations, and 38 microbiological tests were performed each day.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study reveals the scope of the Siddha system of Medicine in managing Musculoskeletal disorders. The patient data generated at APH would enhance the National Health Policy (NHP) objective of strengthening and prioritizing health services' importance, promoting good health, and creating guidelines for high-quality care.</p> Meenakumari R. Christian G. J. Meenakshi Sundaram M. Vasna Joshua Lakshmi Kantham T. Sivakkumar S. Madhavan R. Mahalakshmi V. Mahadevan M. V. Periyasami D. Suresh K. Muthuvel A. Marudhu Ramachandran M. Senthilkumar B. R. Saminathan P. Ramesh P. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2646 2655 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241818 A comparative study of quality of life of elderly living in old age homes and within family <p><strong>Background:</strong> The traditional family structure in India, which historically offered support to the elderly within joint families, is transforming with the disintegration of such setups. Consequently, the concept of old age homes (OAHs) is gaining traction, and there is a notable surge in individuals turning to OAHs care. Despite this trend, there is limited knowledge about the quality of life (QOL) experienced by the Indian elderly residing in OAHs. Objectives was to understand why the elderly transition to OAHs and compare their QOL concerning physical, psychological, social support and environmental health with those living with family.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In a cross-sectional study, elderly individuals aged above 60 years were examined. Following the acquisition of written consent and the matching process for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, 100 elderly individuals from OAHs and 200 elderly individuals living within family setups were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that the physical (40.9) and environmental (35) domains were relatively more favourable for the elderly living with their families. In contrast, the social (55.7) and psychological (51.3) domains showed better outcomes (p&lt;0.05) for elderly residing in OAHs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Though Family plays a crucial role in influencing various domains of health, in situations where traditional family structures may not be present, efforts to enhance the structure of OAHs can contribute to improving the QOL for individuals.</p> Anamika Soni Rama S. Lodha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2656 2660 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241819 Knowledge, attitude and practice of women towards self breast examination in the rural field practice area of IGGMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females. In India, breast cancer is the top most cancer with about 13.6% new cases diagnosed in 2020. Current knowledge of the aetiology of breast cancer offers little prospect of primary prevention. So secondary prevention like breast screening, which include self breast examination have to be done. The present study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding BSE among women aged 18 years and above.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted on 241 females above 18 years of age in rural health care training centre affiliated to IGGMC, Nagpur. All consecutive participants were interviewed in person using a predesigned and pre-tested proforma. SPSS Version 20 was used to analyse the data collected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was seen that the mean age of participants was 29.98±7.382 years The majority of participants were belonged to the Hindu religion (63.9%) and nuclear family (82.57%). Majority of participants (68.05%) were having poor knowledge about BSE, most of the participants were having good attitude (51.45%), majority of participants (53.11%) were having poor practice to BSE.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> BSE is one of the most effective preventive health behaviour for the early detection of breast cancer. In this study, it is evident that knowledge about BSE is low. This indicate that there is a need for Health education about breast cancer and BSE among the rural population of India to improve the KAP about BSE for early detection and better survival.</p> P. R. Pudhiya Samy Ashok R. Jadhao Alandari Pooja Sai Aji Staffina Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2661 2666 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241820 Assessment of oral health knowledge among the medical graduates of private and government colleges: a cross-sectional survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> General health and oral health are interconnected, with oral health being a fundamental component. It is critical for life long human well-being. Oral health issues pose a significant concern for public health. Medical students should also have better knowledge of oral hygiene so that they can provide oral health education and guidance to their patients when requested. Many people seek medical care from their primary care provider for oral health problems. Therefore, doctors must have sufficient knowledge about oral health and play an important role in promoting oral health. This study aimed to assess the oral health knowledge of medical graduates from private and government colleges in Nellore, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A Cross-sectional study using a pre-designed survey consisting of 25 questions with Likert scale options. The study included medical graduates from all private and government colleges. Questions about oral health issues and their relationship to overall health. Data was collected, compiled, and analyzed using the chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Compared to government medical college students, 83.8% of private college students believe that dental caries and periodontal diseases are plaque-mediated diseases. 90.3% of government medical college students agree with the statement "tobacco is only the risk factor for oral cancer" compared to private college students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Medical students lack awareness of oral health issues. Frequently, oral health concerns are neglected as they focus on classroom dynamics and students’ behavior.</p> Akhila Vanga Srinivasulu Gomasani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2667 2671 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241821 Novel contribution to existing knowledge: a focus on emotional intelligence and academic behavior in Northern India <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic behavior (AB) among undergraduate students in Northern Indian colleges. Understanding these factors is fundamental for enhancing student success and well-being.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using a cross-sectional methodology, self-report questionnaires were used to gather data from 1000 undergraduate students who were selected through purposive sampling. Data was collected using tools that included the Emotional Intelligence Self-Assessment Questionnaire and the Academic Behavior Assessment Questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study's findings indicate that, while emotional intelligence and academic behavior are not substantially associated, students exhibit exceptional academic behavior and high emotional intelligence scores Statistical analyses examined the correlations and impacts of various demographic factors on EI and academic behavior. Participants exhibited high levels of academic behavior (mean=87.26, SD=13.55) and average levels of EI (mean = 48.76, SD = 13.99). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between EI and academic behavior (r = 0.097, p = 0.002). Course of study, presence of physical illness, and socio-economic status significantly influenced academic behavior, while place of residence, religion, and socio-economic status affected EI scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite the positive correlation between EI and academic behavior, the association was not substantial. The study highlights the complex interplay of multiple factors affecting student achievement. Further research is encouraged to investigate additional variables impacting EI and academic behavior among Northern Indian undergraduates. These insights can inform targeted interventions to support student development and academic success.</p> Shikha . Jyoti Sarin Abhishek Abhishek Saini Saima . Priya Sharma Qurat-Ain Rahul Dogra Rahil Hafiz Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2672 2678 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241822 Patient reported experience measures: an assessment of the in-patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> The key factor that helps the healthcare industry stand out from its competitors is identifying the needs of patients and taking timely measures to meet those needs. One such factor in identifying patient needs is assessing the experience of the patients that has been reported. This study aims to assess the level of patient reported experience measures of the inpatient level in a tertiary care teaching hospital and also to identify the determinants affecting patient experience.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study used questionnaires to get information from 997 in-patients about the level of patient experiences in the chosen tertiary care teaching hospital. The study was conducted between 1<sup>st</sup> January 2023 to 31<sup>st</sup> January 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that more than 60% of the respondents opined they strongly agreed that their experience with doctors and nurses was good. More than 50% of the respondents had a good experience with regards to billing services. This study has attempted to identify various aspects that measure patient experience and has suggested measures to improve the patient satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The expectations that a patient has from the healthcare sector and the instances where the healthcare sector meets those expectations play a crucial role in determining the success of a healthcare institute. This study suggested various measures to be undertaken in order to improve the patient satisfaction based on the patient reported experiences.</p> Chitra Yathindra Alvita Lurdin Saldanha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2679 2685 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241823 A cross-sectional study on undernutrition among under-5 children living in the rural area of Hyderabad <p><strong>Background:</strong> Undernutrition is a silent emergency and one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among under-5 children throughout the world. A serious public health concern and can have significant effect on child’s overall growth and development. The prevalence of undernutrition is two folds higher among rural area compared with urban area, therefore present study aims to study the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among under-5 children living in rural area of Hyderabad.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2023 to June 2023 in rural field practice area of a medical college in Hyderabad. A total of 364 under-5 children residing in study area were selected by simple random technique. Data about socio-demographic variables were collected by questionnaire and anthropometrics were measured using standard techniques.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, about 33% of under-5 children are underweight and 35% are stunted. The under-5 children belonged to lower socioeconomic class were significantly more likely to be underweight (40%) and stunted (42%). Family size &gt;6 members were significantly underweight (48%) as well as stunted (47%). Children with low birth weight i.e. &lt;2.5 kg had significantly higher rates of underweight (43%) as well as stunting (45%). Among the children with weaning age less than 6 months, 47% were underweight and 45.6% were stunted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Socio economic status, family size, birth weight, and weaning age are important determinants of undernutrition.</p> Afreen Sultan Rizwan Ahmad Madhipati Saikrishna Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2686 2690 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241824 An exploratory study on perception of adolescent girls towards early menarche in a union territory of India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early menarche is always a challenging one for adolescent girls since it is often associated with inadequate knowledge regarding puberty, adverse reproductive health outcomes and mental health problems. The objective of this study was to explore the perception and attitude of adolescent girls towards early menarche.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A qualitative study was conducted in the rural field practice area of a Medical College in Puducherry during January to March 2022. The study participants (adolescent girls) were selected by means of purposive sampling. Four Focus Group Discussions were conducted among adolescent girls using an interview guide. The contents were transcribed and codes were derived. The codes were combined to form categories and finally, themes were generated and were interpreted.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Menarche was a shocking experience for the adolescent girls and there was no mental preparedness for accepting it and attaining menarche even earlier, made it still worse. They felt that they lost their childhood identity at a younger age as they looked more matured compared to their peers. They were unable to adjust themselves and it affected their psychosocial state. According to them, factors such as obesity, improper dietary habits, physical inactivity, and also mothers with early age of menarche were the causes of early menarche.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study participants felt that they had an inadequate knowledge about early menarche and they also found it difficult to cope up with ‘sudden changes into womanhood’. Assuming gender specific roles in their families made them stressed and feels helpless.</p> Saranya Periyasamy Devi Kittu Lopamudra Debasish Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2691 2694 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241825 Impact of intervention on adequate antenatal care and associated factors among Baiga tribal women of Madhya Pradesh: a case-control study <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was done to report on adequate antenatal care services owing to the impact of IEC intervention among deprived Baiga tribal women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Intervention study of 367 tribal women having a reproductive age of 15 to 49 year of 24 villages from district-Dindori. Pre-tested, administered intervention tools were implemented in intervention groups (12 villages) to enhance women's knowledge for the use of ANC services (phase-I) and in phase-II impact evaluation survey of mother’s antenatal care utilization and related details were collected from mothers of both intervention and control group. Based on baseline indicators, a carry forward IEC-intervention study was taken considering the case-control design. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Use of ANC services 82.3% was found to have increased by 10.3% from baseline (72%); it was found significantly higher (88%) in the intervention group while lower (76.1%) in the control group. As regards 60% women received more than 3 ANC check-ups remarkably higher by 13% in the intervention group. Health institution child births 44.8% were found meaningfully improved by 36.8% from baseline (8%); also, it was revealed higher (49.7%) in the intervention group than lower (40%) in the control group. Women’s education and exposure of previous pregnancy has found strong association with adequate antenatal care in intervention groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A comparatively high proportion of the use of ANC services and institutional child birth were found in the intervention group. Improving the access to more quality health services in other tribal communities may necessitate the intervention research.</p> Dinesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2695 2702 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241826 Profile and perspectives of patients with hearing impairment: experience of a hearing camp conducted in rural Assam <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hearing aid non-compliance and rejection despite possessing the hearing aid, is widespread among hearing impairment, influenced by diverse factors. There is limited literature on perspectives of patient before enrolling them in hearing aid programmes at health camps. This cross-sectional study explored the socio-demographic profiles and perspectives of patients with hearing impairment towards their hearing problems and hearing aids, who attended a hearing camp in rural Assam.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross sectional study was performed among patients attending hearing camp in the rural area of Kamrup district of Assam. Demographic details along with findings of ear, nose and throat examination and audiometry and perspectives of the patients on use of hearing aid were recorded in pre-validated questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 96 patients, 56 (62.9%) had hearing difficulties causing communication issues, social inactivity, and irritation among family members. Most attended the camp for free checkups and hearing aids. High treatment costs significantly delayed care for hearing-impaired patients compared to those with normal hearing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> High treatment cost is barrier to use of hearing aid in rural Guwahati, provision of free hearing aid in hearing camps can serve to address this gap. Understanding these barriers and challenges faced by hearing impaired population of the rural population of India is essential to design the implementation of hearing screening and rehabilitation at the community level.</p> Hanifa Akhtar Neizekhotuo B. Shunyu Murchana Khound Jaya Shankar Kaushik Himashree Bhattacharyya M. Jamil Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2703 2709 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241827 Study on decision making patterns and parameters among doctors of pre-clinical and para clinical departments of GMKMC, Salem, Tamil Nadu <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many studies and research articles in our medical field focus on decision making in the clinical set up, but this study only focused on decision making on pre-clinical and paraclinical settings. The objective was to study patterns and parameters of decision making among the doctors of pre-clinical and para clinical departments of GVMCH, Salem.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted among 45 doctors across 7 pre and para clinicals departments of Government Medical College Salem in Tamil Nadu. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation were used for quantitative data and Pearson chi square test and logistic regression was used for qualitative data using Epi Info 7.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean score was 7.2±2.8 with mean scoring percentile of 28.8±11.5. There was Pearsons’s chi square significance for variables like external resources related to decision making, books related to decision making, UG and PG pursued at, exposure to workshops or CMEs related to decision making, and age group &lt;35. But on running logistic regression we got statistical significance for external resources related to decision making and age group &gt;35 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Variables like external resources related to decision making, age group &gt;35 years showed statistical significance and better inferences compared to other dependent and independent variables in this pre and para clinical department set ups.</p> Balaji Jayapal Chellavel Ganapathi Karuppan Guru Kartick Jayaraman Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2710 2714 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241828 Socio-demographic and behavioural profile of HIV positive patients visiting ICTC at a tertiary care hospital in North India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fast track approach is being followed by UNAIDS in order to achieve the aim of ending AIDS epidemic by 2030. It is important to keep a check on new infections and gather information about the HIV trends of the new cases. This study was planned to analyze the socio-demographic details, associated high risk behaviours and common routes of transmission of new cases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data of new HIV positive patients coming to the ICTC centre during the study period was collected. The HIV positive patients were counselled by the counsellor after taking informed consent. The socio demographic details of the patients were shared by the counsellor.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total 92 HIV positive patients were enrolled. Out of 92, 64 were males and 28 were females. Out of 92, 12 were illiterate. Most common route of transmission was found to be heterosexual route followed by blood transfusion. Of 92 patients, 36 were direct walk in clients and 56 were referred to ICTC. Most common high risk behaviour amongst HIV positive people is unsafe sexual practice with non-regular/casual partners, and homemakers are mostly secondarily infected from their reactive spouses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The most common high-risk behaviour (HRB) amongst HIV positive people is unsafe sexual practice with non-regular/casual partners, and innocent homemakers are mostly secondarily infected from their reactive spouses. Thus, there is a need to further spread awareness amongst women about the HRB and risk of HIV. Sharing of results between partners needs to be encouraged in order to prevent HIV transmission.</p> Akanksha Gupta Anupam Das Jyotsna Agarwal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2715 2720 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241829 Problematic usage, safety knowledge, and dependency challenges of mobile phones among late adolescents in southern India: a mixed-methods study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, the number of people using mobile phones is estimated to be around 8.1 billion, with the majority being youths. Therefore, our aim was to assess problematic mobile phone use among late adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted an exploratory mixed-method study among selected schools in Puducherry, South India, from September to October 2019. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among students exhibiting high problematic mobile phone use.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 498 students were enrolled, with a mean (SD) age of 14.3 (1.4) years, and more than half were male. Approximately 77% reported using mobile phones, with around 30% spending more than one hour per day on mobile use. Of the total, 23% (95% CI 19.3-26.8) exhibited problematic mobile phone use. Factors significantly associated with problematic use included the student's level of education (APR= 5.6, 95% CI 1.3 – 24.7), parents' occupations (APR= 3.8, 95% CI 1.2 – 12.2), and hours spent on mobile phones (APR= 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 – 3.4). Only 50% were aware that increased mobile phone use is harmful. Qualitative interviews provided significant insights into smartphone dependency and challenges faced by students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is a pressing need for comprehensive initiatives to promote responsible smartphone use.</p> Parambilankandi Akshay Jeby Jose Olickal Durgesh Roy Venkatachalam Jayaseelan Mahalakshmy Thulasingam Renu V. P. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2721 2728 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241830 The time motion study of an out-patient department in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu <p><strong>Background:</strong> The time taken by the patients during their visit to the hospital out-patient department (OPD) at various service delivery points, the time motion study and by assessing the patient satisfaction regarding the hospital out-patient department, the present study was conducted. This study established the clinical workflow of various events and the operational efficiency of the out-patient department in a busy tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The data pertaining to the time motion study was recorded in hours, minutes and seconds. The patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-10 item questionnaire) was requested by interviewing the patients. The data was statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the SPSS v26.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum time spent was at the investigation counter 00:15:12 and SD was ±00:08:56. The total average waiting time spent during the hospital visits was 00:32:25±00:18:17. The patient satisfaction questionnaire revealed that the overall satisfaction was found to be good in 38 (62.3%) and excellent in 10 (16.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The time spent at the investigation counters which was at the peak can be reduced by prioritization and faster case work-up. The staffing pattern was adequate except on government holidays, there were no particular delay in the OPD care setting.</p> S. Karthikeyan T. Palanivel Rajan J. E. Jeffin Shanu S. Pandi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2729 2737 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241831 Prevalence of hypertension and associated anthropometric indices among the non-medical employees working in medical college Thiruvananthapuram: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is a major public health problem. Globally 1.28 billion adults aged 30-79 years have hypertension and among this 46% were undiagnosed. Kerala is one state undergoing epidemiological transition and having high prevalence of hypertension. So, we did this study to estimate the proportion of hypertension among non-medical employees of Medical College Thiruvananthapuram.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 non-medical employees of medical college Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using an investigator administered questionnaire. Anthropometric indices were measured and recorded. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded twice in a gap of 15 min for each participant in sitting position using mercury sphygmomanometer. Mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was calculated to confirm hypertension. Participants those who were already detected as hypertensive and on treatment were also noted. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 27.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 61/202 (30.19%). Among the hypertensive 39 (63.9%) were already detected and on treatment and 22 (36.1%) were undiagnosed. Among already detected hypertensive 13 (33.3%) were found to be inadequately treated. Hypertension was found to be associated with waist circumference and BMI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study population was found to have high prevalence of hypertension and having association with waist circumference and BMI. The rule of halves for depicting the trend of hypertension in study population can be used as a tool to deduce various interventions in the community.</p> Akhila M. Nair Akhila Jayakumar Mini S. Sreedharan Akhil Raj A. K. Abhinav Ajmal A. Shahina Amala P. Sahu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2738 2742 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241832 Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of fluorosis among Indian dentists: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental fluorosis is a significant public health problem in India as drinking water with high fluoride is widespread throughout the country. Although dentists are key players in the prevention and management of the condition, little is known about their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to fluorosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study on an Indian dentist population was conducted. A 13-question survey was completed by participants in January 2023 - April 2023 using simple random sampling. The questionnaire included some demographic data and information on the source of knowledge and risk factors of fluorosis, related diseases, proper diagnostic measures and treatment and the point of view concerning prophylaxis. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nearly half were aware of drinking water as a key source of fluoride, however all had gaps in knowledge regarding additional sources and adequate level of fluoride. Most of dentists wanted bleaching and veneers; preferences varied while attitudes towards prevention were positive, the study found a gap in applying sections of the essential knowledge and identified that competence in fluorosis management should be improved with educational interventions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Knowledge and practices regarding fluorosis are variable among Indian dentists, with significant gaps in understanding of this condition and its diagnosis. There is a need for educational programs, interdisciplinary work and public awareness in these areas to improve management of fluorosis and oral health. Integration of the subject of fluorosis in the undergraduate courses are recommended to fill the gaps of knowledge and competence in health professionals.</p> Srushti Mandanka Jayasankar P. Pillai Tilomi Desai Yash Modi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2743 2750 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241833 Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients in the directly observed treatment short course centres of Dibrugarh, Assam <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB), second leading cause of mortality in India. Despite of so many efforts of National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP), tuberculosis is still prevalent. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess socio-demographic, clinical profile and treatment outcomes of patients on fixed drug combination (FDC) daily regimen.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Retrospective record-based study was conducted in two DOTS centres of Dibrugarh selected using simple random sampling. A total of 85 medical record were selected and reviewed. Information from treatment card were extracted using a pre-designed online format. Data collected were entered and analysed in SPSS version 25 software and presented using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total of 85 patients records were reviewed. Gender ratio was 54.1%: 45.9% for male:female. Majority 31.8% belonged to most productive age group of 25-34 years of age. Treatment completion rate was 80%, cured rate was 18.8% while 1.2% was died.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Male gender were reported with higher incidence of Tuberculosis. The low percentage of cure rate suggested the need for strengthening of TB services in the DOTs centres.</p> Julee Rajkhowa Sultana J. Ahmed Tulika G. Mahanta Gourangie Gogoi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2751 2755 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241834 Correlates of psychological well-being of school going teenager girls in Chandigarh, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescence is a period characterized by significant challenges to mental health as they may experience a multitude of unfamiliar changes in their lives, accompanied by stress and anxiety. Hence, this life stage demands additional care and attention to foster a healthy transition into adulthood. Objective of the study is to find the correlates of psychological well-being of school going adolescent girls of Chandigarh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> cross-sectional study, conducted among 168, school going adolescent girls within the age group of 13 to 19 years. Descriptive and analytical statistics were utilized were used to find the correlation between DAS with other variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 168 (N) participants, 49.5% had depressive symptoms, 58.9% participants suffered from anxiety and 28.6% suffered from stress. 22.6% suffered from severe and 1.2% had extremely severe anxiety issues. Chi-square analysis revealed that relationship with family, occupation of parents and ages of respondents have strong significant correlation with DAS (Depression, Anxiety and Stress). High anxiety levels were seen in 13-15 years of age group. Age and academic pressure came out be a significant risk factor for DAS among girls. The Logistic regression analysis shows that the demographic characters do not have a significant influence on the mental health of adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Study suggests need of open-healthy communication, a balanced lifestyle, positive peer relationships, strong family support, and self-care as key measures for fostering good psychological well-being of school going teenager girls. Investigations can be done to find the risk factors affecting at emotional level.</p> Chandni Singh Dinesh Kumar Walia Savita Prashar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2756 2764 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241835 Barriers to healthcare and health seeking behaviors among elderly people living in rural regions of India: a study based on 9 villages in Eastern Uttar Pradesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> The elderly population in India is experiencing exponential growth and facing various health and well-being challenges. This demographic shift is especially pronounced in rural areas, affecting social, financial, family, and transportation aspects, subsequently impacting health and well-being. This study aims to comprehensively understand these needs and priorities by exploring the multifaceted challenges faced by the elderly in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An exploratory qualitative research study with a quantitative component was conducted in 9 villages in Uttar Pradesh’s Siddhartha Nagar District. Participants included individuals aged 60 years and above (n=29, M:F ratio of 13:16). Data were collected using Focus Group Discussions and Personal Interviews to assess the challenges faced by the geriatric population. The methodology involved multi-directional interactive sessions focusing on health, illness, and coping.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Participants averaged over 5.8 medical conditions. Those with better Socio-Economic Status (SES) reported multiple conditions but fewer troubles, while the majority, being very poor, did not consider health a primary concern. There were no complaints about the lack of public health facilities or transportation. The study highlights the complex interactions between healthcare, family, and financial difficulties that older people in rural India experience, underscoring the need for specialised treatments. The low level of knowledge about government programmes emphasises the need for improved outreach techniques to close existing accessibility gaps.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study recommends focused interventions and improved policies to meet the unique needs of India's rural elderly population. Policymakers and healthcare providers can enhance the well-being of this vulnerable demographic by understanding the complex nature of their issues.</p> Ilham Zaidi Shikhar Chaudhary Twinkle Sharma Jagadeswari Vardha Abdul Khayum Sahifa Anjum Aditi Bakshi Gayathree Nuguru Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2765 2770 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241836 Influence of lifestyle factors-sleep patterns and stress on skin health and ageing amongst the general population in India <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study examines the impact of lifestyle factors, particularly sleep patterns and stress, on skin health and aging in the Indian population. The findings provide valuable information for health professionals, policy makers and individuals to develop targeted interventions and recommendations to promote healthy skin and combat premature aging.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study utilized SPSS Software (by IBM) for descriptive and inferential statistical tests, calculating frequencies and percentages of categorical variables. Descriptive statistics summarized participants' characteristics, while the chi-square test was used to investigate associations between socio demographic factors and acne. The total of 510 participants was included in the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> To investigate categorical factors associated with skin finding (acne), Chi-square test was used to find the association and where the expected count in cells was less than 5, Fisher Exact test was applied. Statistical significance determined at p&lt;0.05. There was a total of 510 individuals but 7 did not consent to participate so 503 individuals were included in analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The use of smartphones has had a big impact on sleep patterns, which are crucial for preserving physiological balance. Sleep disturbances can cause dryness and irritation of skin. A diet high in fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, red grapes are directly linked to promoting skin health. Blue light exposure from smartphones and other electronics can cause hyperpigmentation, premature wrinkles, tanning, and other skin problems. Nomophobia is a phenomenon that we see in this age of reliance on technology, especially cell phones.</p> Vishal K. R. Katta Anuhya Sarmad Imran Sneha Khanduja Chennagouni Yeshasri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2771 2779 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241837 Informal caregiver burden among carers of bedridden elderly: a cross sectional study in North Kerala <p><strong>Background:</strong> In the cultural context of India, informal caregiving stands as the foremost form of support to the elderly. This study investigates the status of caregiver burden and it’s psychological impact on informal caregivers of bedridden elderly in rural north Kerala, India. The study also delves into the socio-demographic factors associated with caregiver burden as well as psychological distress among family caregivers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive study. The data was collected from (n=120) caregivers using the burden assessment scale and psychological distress assessment scale. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests were employed in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study results reveal that female informal caregivers experience a higher caregiver burden compared to the male counterpart. Most caregivers experience mild to moderate levels of burden and significant levels of stress anxiety and depression. Caregiver burden has a significant difference with the type of relationship with the care recipient and duration of care.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study implies that there is a need for multifaceted interventions to alleviate the caregiver burden and address the psychological manifestations among caregivers.</p> Anjala V. Sajeev Cyril John Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2780 2786 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241838 A study on household medicine wastage and disposal practices with screening of water samples for antibiotic presence in a South Indian district <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pharmaceuticals in the environment is known since last two decades. As hospitals and pharma industries, household medicines also need proper disposal otherwise they will gradually find their way into environment. So, we did a survey of residents in major metro city to understand their medicine wastage as well as disposal practices.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Pharmaceuticals in the environment is known since last two decades. As hospitals and pharma industries, household medicines also need proper disposal otherwise they will gradually find their way into environment. So, we did a survey of residents in major metro city to understand their medicine wastage as well as disposal practices.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The water samples screened for antibiotic presence were all negative from 10 locations. A total population of 749 people, from 165 houses were included in the study. Leftover medicines were found in 75.8% houses, of which 5.36% houses had leftover antibiotics. Garbage disposal (58.2%) was the most commonly observed method of medicine disposal. Good attitude towards proper antibiotic disposal was independently significant with higher education (OR=2.5, 95% CI= 1.05-6.17), employment (OR=2.1, 95% CI= 1.05-4.3), and upper middle-class families (OR=2.4, 95% CI= 1.08-5.21).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Lack of proper guidelines for household medicine disposal across the country is reflected in our community too. Although this study could not detect antibiotics in the canal water, the emerging resistance pattern across the state reflects it could be there. Therefore, immediate action on medicine waste collections needs to be implemented.</p> Rosme David Mamatha Jayachandran Princy Louis Palatty Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2787 2793 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241839 Study of the morbidity profile including depression among the elderly in the rural area, East Bangalore <p><strong>Background:</strong> Old age is associated with diminished physiological reserve; so any physical illness, metabolically derangement or pharmacological challenge can worsen cognitive and physical function. The only way to minimize or avoid these will be to be on the lookout and have a proactive approach and assessment in every older patient irrespective of the presenting complaint. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic profile and self reported morbidity pattern of the elderly population and to estimate the prevalence of depression among the elderly population using the geriatric depression scale.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A pre-designed, pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used in the study. The data collection technique is by personal interview of the study subjects. A pre-designed, pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used in the study. The data collection technique is by personal interview of the study subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study more women were under depression than the men. The most common physical morbidity among the elderly population was cataract (59.7%), followed by arthritis (57.1%), non- specific body pains (40.1%) and hypertension (39%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Prevalence of depression among the elderly population is reported to be high (84.3%) in this study. Multi morbidity, socio economic factors and financial dependence were factors associated with depression in elderly.</p> Margaret Menzil Vinutha R. Swarna S. K. Kallepalli Ravikiran Kamunuri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2794 2798 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241840 Caffeine consumption among medical students: an exploratory study in a medical school in a sub–Himalayan state of India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Among the psychostimulants, caffeine is the most commonly used compound with beneficial effects in low to moderate intake. Medical students due to extended scholastic work do indulge in caffeine intake. The present study aimed to explore the prevalence, determinants and its positive and negative effects among medical students in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jammu, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present cross sectional study was conducted in the month of December, 2023. Online questionnaire was shared with all the undergraduate MBBS students of the medical school and were directed to submit their responses. Data thus collected was entered into Excel spread sheet and analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of caffeine intake among the respondents was 85.7%. The most common caffeinated beverage consumed was tea followed by coffee while energy drinks were least consumed. Among the reasons for consumption, feeling refreshed and combating drowsiness were cited as two main reasons. Respondents reported gastritis (41%), insomnia (30%), anxiety (18%) and palpitation (18%) as major side effects post consumption.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The frequency of caffeine use among the respondents was more on the regular days in contrast to stress related exam days as reported in other studies. Intake of caffeinated beverages favourable time was morning. More studies are recommended to study long term results of consumption of caffeinated beverages.</p> Ujjwala Gangwal Mehak T. Mir Rajiv K. Gupta Rishab Gupta Chaitanya Kailu Mahendra S. Dhadawad Reenu Padha Khalid H. Naik Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2799 2804 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241841 Assessment of health care seeking behaviour and its associated factors amongst the residents of a rural community of Kamrup District in Assam: a mixed method study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Healthcare seeking behaviour (HSB) is an important determinant of health outcome. There are multiple socio demographic &amp; provider related variables which determines the HSB of a community. Recognition of these determinants is important in promoting appropriate health care seeking behaviour.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a cross sectional study with mixed method design conducted amongst 200 households in a rural area of Assam. Systematic random sampling was used to determine the households to be interviewed and only one responder was taken from each household. Along with a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, health literacy was assessed through the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire (translated to the local language). Qualitative data was collected through 2 Focus Group Discussions and 4 In-Depth Interviews.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study determined that 62% of the population had appropriate HSB while the rest (38%) lacked appropriate HSB. The Health Literacy of 31% population was problematic, 23% was inadequate while only 46% had sufficient Health Literacy. The tribal population had significantly higher inappropriate HSB as compared to the non tribals variable [A.O.R- 2.12; CI (1.15-3.88)]. Qualitative analysis revealed that participants were multiple barriers such as “Inappropriate disease severity perception”, “Inconvenient OPD timings” amongst host of other barriers. Similarly, “Pro-Active approach of Health Care Workers” was amongst the factors identified as enabler.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> As health care providers we need to focus on the tribal community and ensure that proper confidence building measures are in place to make sure that the apprehensions are addressed.</p> Rashmi Agarwalla Subba Krishna Subhrajeet Chakrborty Forhad Akhtar Zaman Himashree Bhattacharyya Limalemla Jamir Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2805 2811 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241842 Perceived stress and sleep quality among patients visiting primary and community health centres in Kerala: COVID-19 pandemic context <p><strong>Background:</strong> The quality of sleep, a multifaceted construct encompassing factors such as duration, continuity, and depth, plays a pivotal role in cognitive function, while perceived stress, the subjective appraisal of stressors and one's ability to cope with them, has been identified as a significant factor affecting various aspects of individuals' lives. The present study aimed to investigate “Perceived stress and sleep quality among patients who visited community and primary health centers in Kerala during the COVID-19 pandemic”.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The sample of the study consist of 60 patients aged between 18 and 50, who visited community and primary health centers in Kerala. Questionnaire for Perceived Stress Scale – Malayalam Version and Sleep Quality Scale were used in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings of the study reveals that the patients visiting community and primary health centers in Kerala during the COVID-19 pandemic experience slightly elevated levels of perceived stress, closely aligned with general stress scores. However, their sleep quality remains largely normal, with only minor deviations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study reveals a negative impact of pandemic-related stress on sleep timing and quality among these patients. Consequently, it underscores the importance of addressing both stress levels and sleep quality during such public health crises.</p> Abdul Rasik Thachorath Fathimathul Jusna Kalliyil Jaseem Koorankot Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2812 2817 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241843 Effectiveness of yoga interventions on stress and anxiety levels of school teachers during COVID-19 era in Anand district, Gujarat <p><strong>Background:</strong> During coronavirus outbreak, lockdown was implemented in India and online teaching was adopted as new teaching method. This shifting in teaching pattern may increase the burden on mental health of school teachers and cause various mental health issues. Therefore, this study was done to assess stress and anxiety levels of teachers and impact of yoga intervention on them.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An interventional study was conducted with teachers of five English medium schools. Pre-test was done for the assessment of stress and anxiety by using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) scale respectively. Yoga intervention was done virtually once a week for three months. Participants were asked to practice the yoga daily on their own. After three months, post-test was done using similar questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 136 teachers were enrolled in this study. On pre-test, moderate perceived stress was observed in 95 (69.9%) participants. 38 (27.9%) participants were having mild anxiety symptoms and 74 (54.5%) participants were having no anxiety symptoms. Pre PSS mean score was 17.28 (SD=5.90) and Post PSS mean score was 13.29 (SD=4.30). Pre GAD-7 mean score was 4.88 (SD=4.28) and Post GAD-7 mean score was 4.24 (SD=3.13). There were highly significant mean differences between pre-post comparison of PSS and GAD-7 (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study showed significant level of stress and anxiety among teachers. Yoga intervention of three months was effective in reducing stress and anxiety levels in teachers.</p> Dhruv H. Patel Manisha K. Gohel Ajay G. Phatak Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2818 2823 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241844 Psychological patterns in pre-graduate students in Tirupati district <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescent age can be a stressful experience for young people with a wide range of concerns. Comprehensive studies on psychological patterns among pre-graduate students in India are meagre. Therefore, this study aimed to assess psychological morbidities and quality of life in them.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study recruited 567 students aged 15-18 years, who pursued pre-graduate courses at government (300) and private (267) colleges in and around Tirupati and Chandragiri, Andhra Pradesh, India. Information was collected about their physical and psychological health, substance abuse and usage of electronic gadgets. The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and sleeplessness were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A significant association was observed in the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression among government and private college students at levels of 1%, 10% and 5%, respectively. Higher levels of depression were observed in 44.8% of students; depression was high in girls and government college students. Often, girls experience higher levels of stress leading to psychological illnesses than boys due to their inability to share their feelings and fears among family members. The proportion of poor family health indicators was significantly high in students with moderately low levels of anxiety. Poor sleep had decreased as the depression worsened from borderline to higher levels in boys and decreased even with mild mood disturbances in girls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Management strategies at personal, institutional and social levels are to be developed after understanding the risk factors of psychological morbidities in students.</p> Ashok Kumar Reddy Kapu Venkata Prasad Upadrasta Bharathi Sibbala Hemalatha Bathina Renuka Sadasivuni Satyendra Nath Ponna J. J. Babu Geddam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2824 2833 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241845 Assessment of awareness among parents about dietary habits and its relation to oral health in children: a cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases which occurs during early childhood and continues to be major public problem. Establishing healthy dietary habits right from a very young age not only improves the oral health but is essential for a child’s growth and development. Since parents are the main caregivers and prime regulators of child’s dietary intake, they play an important role in shaping child’s oral hygiene habits. Hence it is necessary for them to be aware of the right nutrition, right oral hygiene modalities and frequent dental visits for the betterment of child’s overall health.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents of children visiting to Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry KAHER’s KLE VK Institute of dental sciences, Belagavi. Subjects were selected according to inclusion criteria. This study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted among parents about dietary habits and its relation to oral health in children.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study shows the statistically significant results with effect among parents about awareness of dietary habits and its relation to oral health in children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> With the results it can be concluded that children who had parents with low knowledge scores were more likely to experience caries and have poor oral hygiene.</p> Shweta S. Hugar Saatmika Manapragada Shivayogi Hugar Vilas Pattar Shruti Karvekar Abhirami Sureshbabu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2834 2838 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241846 Infant and young child feeding knowledge and practices among mothers of under-5 children in Nadia district, West Bengal: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice (exclusive breastfeeding till 6 months and adequate diet in a child aged 6-24 months i.e. age-appropriate number of food groups in sufficient amount and age-appropriate number of meals per day) and maintenance of hygiene are of paramount importance to promote child growth and survival. Despite several guidelines, IYCF remains an unsolved issue in the background of the significantly high proportion of malnutrition as well as under-five mortalities globally as well as in India. The current study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices related to IYCF among mothers and to find out the predictors of the same in a rural area of West Bengal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 351 mothers of under-five children in Nadia district, west Bengal with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Multi-stage random sampling was done. Data were entered into MS Excel and analysed in the SPSS 21.0 version.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study found that the majority (49.3% and 74.5% respectively) had an average knowledge and practice score related to infant and young child feeding. Bivariate analyses revealed that the mothers having educational levels more than higher-secondary had higher odds of good IYCF knowledge; also those who had experienced "ASHA’s home visit within one month" had higher odds of good IYCF practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Adequate and consistent implementation of existing government policies can bridge the gap of knowledge and thereby practice of infant and young child feeding.</p> Rakhi Saha Jayita Pal Manoj Ghosh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2839 2846 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241847 Study to find out reasons for opting medical profession and regret after joining MBBS course among first year students of a medical college in Andhra Pradesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many students in India are influenced by parental pressure to pursue a career in medicine. It has been consistently observed that a notable number of medical students later regret their career choice. This study aims to delve into the reasons behind the choice of a medical career, preferences for various teaching methods, causes of inattentiveness in classes, and the level of regret experienced by students after opting for this path.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 first year medical students with a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire. Data collected was analysed using SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the subjects was 19.13±1.18 and most of them were females (57.6%). The majority (72.2%) of students opted MBBS out of self-interest. To serve the society (21.2%) was the most common motivational factor to choose MBBS. 14.6% of the subjects were having feelings of regret for choosing the medical profession.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Self-interest was the major reason for opting MBBS. Fulfilling parent’s wishes was also observed as one of the reasons for opting MBBS. Most students considered interactive lectures as their preferred teaching method, though many also preferred demonstrations and video lectures. Almost one third of the students were having feelings of regret for selecting the medical profession.</p> Paidi Shrivatsam Preeti K. Yadav Paidi Purna Chand Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2847 2851 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241848 Assessment of quality of mid-day meal in Khamanon, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mid-day meal (MDM) is a scheme implemented by Government of India to combat the problem of malnourishment. Periodic assessment of the food and nutritional quality of mid-day meals being served to the school children for nutrient consumption is imperative. This study was designed to evaluate the quality of food served under MDM.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected 11 government schools of Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (May-July, 2018). The cooked food samples were evaluated for assessing the food quality of MDM in different schools with respect to colour, consistency and taste by a panel of 5-6 judges. The amount of food grains, pulses, vegetables, etc. provided to all the upper primary school children were recorded and then evaluated for the nutritive content (calories, protein, fat) of MDM and its contribution per day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, energy as well as protein requirement was fulfilled by mid-day meal but was low for fat (2.4 gm). The quantity of mid-day meal provided was adequate except for the vegetables (leafy also). Usage of green leafy vegetables was low (42 gm), served once in a week. There was 76% adequacy of nutrient intake in the present study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study shows that improvement in the quality and quantity of the Mid-day meal is essential to fill the nutrient gap. There is a need to improve fat content of the meal, as it was low. More leafy vegetables should be included in the meal or their substitutes should be encouraged.</p> Harpreet Kaur Pritam Halder Rachana Srivastava Tarundeep Singh Poonam Khanna Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2852 2858 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241849 Dietary habits and nutritional status of upper primary school children covered under Mid-Day Meal scheme in rural Punjab <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits and nutritional status of upper primary school children covered under mid-day meal scheme (MDMS) in rural Punjab.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional research was conducted among 336 adolescent (10-15 years) students of 6<sup>th</sup> to 8th standard randomly selected from 11 government/ municipality schools selected randomly from the total 112 schools rural Punjab in 2018. After taking informed written assent/ consent, pretested, semi structured questionnaire was administered. Anthropometric measurements were taken to establish malnutrition, underweight, stunting, wasting and overweight.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority (90%) liked the MDMS which was being served to them. There was 96% regularity in attending the school daily with a slightly less emphasis on the cleanliness maintenance (73%) of the children by the schoolteachers. Malnutrition and underweight were 59% and 50% prevalent, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was higher in girls (30%). In boys (154) both the stunting and wasting was 23%, with 5% and 6% prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight respectively. Whereas in case of girls (182), the prevalence of stunting (30%) was more than wasting (25%) with less girls (3% each) being overweight and at risk of overweight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Regularity and attendance were up to mark due to increased likeliness of the food by majority of the students, though cleanliness should be improved further. Higher prevalence of malnutrition, wasting and stunting was observed which was even higher among girls. Overweight and risk of overweight was higher among boys. Hence, nutritional status was unsatisfactory.</p> Harpreet Kaur Pritam Halder Rachana Srivastava Tarundeep Singh Poonam Khanna Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 11 7 2859 2865 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20241850