International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health <p>The <strong>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH)</strong> is an open access, international, monthly, peer-reviewed journal publishes articles of authors from India and abroad with special emphasis on original research findings that are relevant for developing country perspectives including India.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research articles, focusing on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology and social medicine, invited annotations and comments, invited papers on recent advances, clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and management review article, short communication/brief reports, letters to the editor, case reports, etc. The journal covers population based studies, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation, systematic review, meta-analysis, clinic-social studies etc., related to any domain and discipline of public health, especially relevant to national priorities, including ethical and social issues. Articles aligned with national health issues and policy implications are preferred. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2394-6032</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2394-6040</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Community Med Public Health.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a title="PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101711371, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalId=31416" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalID=32537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScopeMed</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23946032&amp;uid=r5af96" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> Medip Academy en-US International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2394-6032 Sleep quality among family medicine physicians before and during COVID-19 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to assess the sleep quality of family medicine physicians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to explore the associations between sleep quality and various demographic and health-related factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 109 family medicine physicians participated in this cross-sectional study. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was utilized to evaluate sleep quality, encompassing seven components: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. Data were collected asking questions regarding both before and during the pandemic period. Descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed significant changes in sleep quality components before and during the pandemic. While sleep latency and sleep duration improved, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction worsened during the pandemic. The overall global PSQI score indicated a decline in sleep quality during the pandemic. Females reported poorer sleep quality than males. Participants with general anxiety disorder, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension experienced worse sleep quality. Other demographic and health-related factors exhibited mixed associations with sleep quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study highlights the nuanced impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep quality of family medicine physicians. The observed changes in sleep quality components and their associations with various factors underscore the need for tailored interventions to address sleep disturbances among healthcare professionals. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of sleep quality dynamics in the context of a global crisis and emphasize the significance of promoting well-being among healthcare providers for enhanced patient care.</p> Eman A. Alshafei Afnan Alsulami Anwar Alqurashi Hanan Salahuddin Hanin Al luhaibi Meshal Albaqami Zahra Mohammad Ali Banat Muna Aysan Alzahrani Rehab Almutairi Nojoud Althoubaity Walaa Alzubaidi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-11 2024-01-11 11 2 594 600 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240017 A Quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of primary caregiver social support capacity on self-management practices of clients living with type II diabetes in Machakos county, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes is a fast-growing public health emergency, projected to affect 643 million people by 2045. While primary caregiver social support can influence the self-management practices of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) clients, there's often limited capacity to provide it. The study determined the effectiveness of enhanced caregivers' social support capacity on self-management practices of T2D clients in Machakos.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A six-month quasi-experimental study design that adopted quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis approaches. Primary caregivers at the Matungulu intervention site were trained on T2D self-management and types of social support, with no intervention conducted at the Masinga control site.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Over 90% of the 227 primary caregivers were female, with a mean age of 43.28, supporting approximately three T2D clients each. Post-intervention, a 27.2% change in capacity to identify all T2D self-management practices was noted compared to a 7.6% change in the control group. The greatest contribution was in the primary caregivers' ability to provide tangible, followed by emotional and informational social support, resulting in a statistically significant improvement in the self-management practices in the intervention site, B=0.140 (95% CI: 0.072, 0.208), t=4.046, p&lt;0.001. Consequently, the difference in blood glucose levels was statistically significant, crude OR=3.213 [95% CI: 2.039, 5.063], p&lt;0.001. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Enhanced capacity to provide social support positively correlates with the T2D clients' self-management practices. Further investigation of factors that hinder the full realization of primary caregiver social support capacity benefits in improving self-management capacities among T2D clients is recommended.</p> Jackline Njeri Kiarie Susan Njoki Mambo George Kimathi Kamundi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 11 2 601 613 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240034 An evidence-based approach to physical conditioning in American cadet law enforcement academies <p><strong>Background:</strong> Law enforcement physical fitness training is not standardized in the United States; instead, there is heavy reliance on training officers or other LEOs with an interest in exercise. This study aimed to evaluate performance outcomes between a traditionally designed physical conditioning program and an evidence-based conditioning program for law enforcement cadets.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Two metropolitan state law enforcement training centers in the southeast United States volunteered to participate in this investigation. Each program lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 5 days/week of physical training. The experimental group (n=46) was provided with an evidence-based physical conditioning program consisting of anaerobic and aerobic conditioning, agility, power, movement quality, defensive tactics, and muscular endurance. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The control group participants (n=18) were assigned to a traditional instructor-led physical training program consisting of calisthenics and running. Of the 14 fitness variables measured, the intervention group displayed improvements in 10 variables, whereas the control group improved 6 variables.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results of this study encourage law enforcement departments to make provisions for modifications to enhance traditional cadet physical training programs, with consultation from strength and conditioning subject matter experts. </p> Bridget F. Melton Thomas Nagel Sarah Lanham Derick Anglin Gregory Ryan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 614 624 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240246 Cognitive hallmarks of insomnia and its influence on cardiac response to handgrip test among medical students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is increasingly prevalent among university students, and is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in general population. The study investigated predictors of insomnia and its impact on cardiovascular responsiveness among undergraduates at the University of Lagos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 514 students categorized into normal or insomnia groups based on their insomnia severity index (ISI) scores. The association between insomnia and various factors related to poor sleep was assessed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) responses to a handgrip test at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were compared between the two groups (n=57) using t-tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Predictors of insomnia among students included environmental discomfort, engagement in digital activities, emotional and health challenges, use of sleep suppressants, and academic stress, all significantly associated with insomnia (p&lt;0.001). Other factors associated with insomnia included low mood, attention deficit, memory loss, and poor academic performance (p&lt;0.01). Average SBP and DBP were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in control group compared with insomnia group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Low mood, attention deficit, memory loss and poor academic performance are hallmarks of insomnia among medical students, with no potential cardiovascular risk.</p> Francis M. Agbaraolorunpo Adedoyin Ogunyemi Kehinde Ogunlunsi Wale Jimoh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 625 633 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240247 Exclusive breastfeeding practices and predictors among mothers attending child care immunization services in Ebonyi state, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Low adoption of exclusive breast feeding among mothers and its impact on the infants has been attributed to several factors. The im of the study was to assess exclusive breastfeeding practices and predictors among women attending child care immunization services at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (AE-FUTHA).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The design of this study is cross-sectional survey. The population of the study comprised of 2100 women who registered for child care immunization services at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki from the month of January-March, 2023. Convenience sampling technique was used in selecting the participants. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, frequency counts and percentages and t test statistics. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the exclusive breastfeeding practices of the women were high (3.33±0.39). Also, EBP of the women was high based on age and parity. Although, there was no significant difference in the exclusive breastfeeding practices based on parity (p&gt;0.05). However, there was significant difference in the exclusive breastfeeding practices based on age of the mothers (p&lt;0.05). </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that to sustain the high practices of exclusive breastfeeding among women attending child care immunization services at AE-FUTHA, there is need to continue to engage them on seminars, workshops and conferences by health workers on the days of immunization with special focus to the younger age of the mothers in order to sustain the high EBPs.</p> Edith N. Obande-Ogbuinya Eunice N. Afoke Michael Joseph Anyaeru Patrick Nwite Nwajioha Scholastica Amuchi Orji Anthonia Ogechukwu Nnubia Ifeyinwa Maureen Okeke Emmanuel Obinna Ogueri Jude N. Nwafor Ben N. Ohuruogu Christian Okechukwu Aleke Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 634 642 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240248 Characteristics of medical students with problematic smartphone use: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Excessive smartphone use is common among university students and can negatively affect students’ mental health, but data from Middle-East countries is scarce. Objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of medical students affected by and the prevalence of problematic smartphone use in a sample of Iranian medical students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in a large Iranian medical university. A convenience sample of 356 students of different years of medical training were recruited. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, daily estimated average time using a smartphone, and main motivations to use a smartphone were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Problematic smartphone use (PSU) was evaluated using the smartphone addiction scale – short version (SAS-SV) questionnaire. Backward logistic regression analysis was used to understand independent factors associated with PSU.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, two-thirds of Iranian medical students were affected by PSU, including 68.5% of male and 64% of female students. Students who lived alone had significantly higher SAS-SV scores than those who lived with their families (p=0.007). Additionally, students with daily smartphone use &gt;4 hours were 3.2 times more likely to be diagnosed with PSU (p&lt;0.001). Social media use was the main motivation that strongly predicted the presence of PSU among medical students (adjusted OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.68-4.89).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Main motivation to use and duration of phone use are the most important factors predicting problematic smartphone use among medical students.</p> Arman Mehrzadeh Ramin Shiraly Seyedeh Niko Hashemi Kayvon S. Dehghanian Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 643 648 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240249 Predictors of the resurgence and sustainability of open defecation-free status among adult residents in Kibwezi East Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya <p><strong>Background: </strong>Worldwide, 2.4 billion persons lack improved sanitation and practice open defecation. In Kenya, about 14% of its population defecates in the open and the country loses over $324 million a year due to poor sanitation. The study focused on establishing infrastructural factors influencing the resurgence and sustainability of open-defecation-free status among adult residents in Kibwezi East Sub-County of Makueni County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study employed purposeful, cluster, proportionate, simple random sampling and descriptive cross-sectional design. Participants included residents aged 18 or older, who lived in the area at least two years. Chi-square tests at p≤0.05 examined relationships between independent and dependent variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Majority of respondents were Christian (98.8%), with 52.9% completing primary education. Most were female (68.6%), married (89.1%), and averaged 48.40 years. Education at or below primary level increased the likelihood of not sustaining ODF practices (uOR=1.567, 95% CI: 1.061-2.315, p=0.024). Sanitary facilities were often within 10-50 m (59.5%), with a median walk time of 3.0 min. ODF sustainability was less likely without user-friendly facilities (uOR=2.47, p&lt;0.001) and with roofless toilets (uOR=0.355, p&lt;0.001). Longer walking times (&gt;3 min) reduced ODF sustainability (uOR=0.341, p&lt;0.001). Absence of designated open defecation sites increased ODF odds by 1.669 times (UOR=1.669, p&lt;0.001), and odor-free toilets enhanced sustainability (UOR=1.287, p=0.030).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results highlight the significance of socio-demographic factors, including education levels, and infrastructural in maintaining ODF status.</p> Joshua M. Mutuku Joseph Juma Bibianne W. Aidi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 649 654 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240250 Knowledge and attitude towards hypertension among female community health volunteers of Bharatpur Metropolitan: a cross-sectional study in Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is one of the major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and becoming a serious public health problem globally. The rising burden of hypertension in Nepal requires a community-based intervention that can be provided through female community healthcare volunteers (FCHVs). Our study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards the prevention of hypertension among FCHVs of Bharatpur Metropolitan (BM).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted and face-to-face interview was employed to recruit all the participants (n=207). Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the characteristics of the participants. An Independent t-test was used to determine the association between knowledge and attitude of hypertension with participants’ socio-demographical characteristics. All the tests were carried out at the statistically significant of p value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of participants (40.6%) belonged to the age group 40 to 49 years. Education (7.7±1.5, p=0.001), religion (7.5±1.7, p=0.017,) and family history of hypertension (7.8±1.7, p=0.018) were statistically significant with the knowledge of hypertension. Similarly, education (9.6±0.9, p=0.000), and self-history of hypertension (9.5±0.7, p=0.014) of participants were statistically significant with the attitude of hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite having satisfactory knowledge and attitude on hypertension, some of the participants were unable to identify a systolic and diastolic range of blood pressure for hypertension, risk factors, and complications of hypertension. This study highlighted strengthening targeted orientation programs toward hypertension for the FCHVs to improve their knowledge and beliefs about hypertension.</p> Anita Adhikari Manish Rajbanshi Sujeeta Phuyal Richa Aryal Dinesh Raj Neupane Ganesh Sapkota Sanju Banstola Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 655 661 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240251 Fear and depression among health care professionals: a cross-sectional study during COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern that can result in severe mental health conditions like depression and fear in health-care professionals (HCPs).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted, where 834 HCPs were self-recruited via social media. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify predicting factors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Approximately one-third of the total participants were depressed (27.3%) and those with depressive symptoms had significant fear of COVID-19. Significant risk factors for depressive symptoms were being female, being married, having no children, having high risk elderly persons at home, being afraid of death due to COVID-19 and having comorbid diseases. Fear of death due to COVID-19 was the most common significant contributing factor the scales for depression model, β=0.397, for fear of COVID-19 model and β=0.478 respectively. Quality of PPE played a vital role for depression as majority of HCPs. About 65.3% of HCPs who were restless while examining a patient with flu symptoms and majority of HCPs who felt insecure about their family members.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Most of the HCPs faced several challenges during COVID-19 and psychological impacts of frontline HCPs were associated with interventions and rehabilitations to improve the mental health.</p> Sharmin H. Prima Israt Jahan Tanjina Atique M. N. Kaikobad M. R. Ahmed Mohammad Jahangir A. Sarker Faridul Alam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 662 670 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240252 Healthcare providers factors influencing the uptake of WHO modified safe child birth checklist in management of pre-term births among healthcare workers in Migori County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> The World Health Organization introduced the safe childbirth checklist in 2015 to address high rates of maternal mortality and preterm deliveries. The checklist varies based on geography and socioeconomic position. Healthcare professionals in developing nations lag behind those in developed nations, with less than sixty percent using the checklist routinely in African nations.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional study design was used and 140 participants in the selected public health facilities in Migori County, Kenya. Data was collected using administered structured questionnaire, and Key Informant Interview. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 26.0 and involved univariate and bivariate analysis. Bivariate analysis was done through logistic regression was used to test the significance of the association between the dependent and independent variables (p&lt;0.05). Qualitative data was analyzed by thematic content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Almost three-quarter of respondents 100 (71.4%) use the WHO safe childbirth checklist, with 80 (78.4%) of nursing officers and 22 (75.9%) of respondents aged between 40-49 years had higher uptake of WHO modified safe childbirth checklist. Cadre (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=9.030; df 1; p=0.003), understanding what mSCCL is all about (p=0.0001), aware mSCCL is available in maternity unit (p=0.0001), and understanding the pause points in the mSCCL (p=0.006) were significantly associated with uptake of WHO modified safe childbirth checklist.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Healthcare institutions should prioritize comprehensive training programs on the mSCCL, incorporating peer-led initiatives and experienced healthcare workers for practical insights and shared experiences.</p> Priscah Lihanda Esther Muitta Faith Muhonja Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 671 677 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240253 Exploring the impact of early-term labor induction on cesarean section risk in gestational diabetes mellitus: insights from a tertiary care hospital study in Pakistan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common endocrine disorder in pregnancy. It is associated with significant perinatal morbidity and mortality, therefore, an early-term delivery by routine induction of labor is proposed by some societies, to prevent/reduce these complications.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1<sup>st</sup> January 2019 and 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan to compare the pregnancy outcomes of patients with GDM when induced at 37, 38, and 39 weeks in comparison to women with GDM managed expectantly. The study included all women with singleton pregnancy and vertex presentation. Women induced after 41 weeks, previous cesarean delivery, placenta previa, major fetal anomalies, chronic maternal medical conditions that necessitate delivery, and those women presenting with spontaneous onset of labor were excluded. Data was analyzed in SPSS v.19.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 293 women were included. The mean age of women was 27 years, and the mean BMI was 27.8 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. We found that women who were induced at earlier gestational weeks were managed with a combination of diet and pharmacological therapy in comparison to those induced at later gestational weeks and achieved glycemic control with diet and lifestyle modifications only. Around 77% of women required pharmacological therapy. The mode of delivery was not significantly different for women induced at different gestational weeks after 37 completed weeks. For neonatal outcomes, the birth weight was significantly greater for women induced at later gestational weeks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In women with gestational diabetes induced after 37 weeks at various gestational weeks, the mode of delivery is not significantly different.</p> Anum Aziz Zaheena Shamsul Islam Amir Raza Naila Karim Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 678 684 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240254 Assessment of clinical profile among hypertensive patients, Meru, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Globally, more than 1.28 billion adults are hypertensive and in Kenya, 24% of adult population has elevated blood pressure and 56% of these have never been screened for hypertension. Assessment of clinical profile helps guide the management of hypertensive patients towards obtaining normal blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical profile of hypertensive patients at the Meru Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional survey was conducted and systematic random sampling was used to sample 75 hypertensive patients who participated in the study. The collected data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Chi square was used to assess the relationship between the participants’ demographic characteristics, clinical profile and hypertension. Statistical significance was set at <em>p≤0.05</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average mean age of the participants was 58.53 years and majority were female (52%). Thirty-three (33.3%) were overweight and 24% were obese. The mean body mass index (BMI) for both genders was 26.48±5.24, the mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) was 0.94 and 102.09 respectively with 85.3% of the participants having a substantially increased WHR. Diabetes was the most common comorbidity (70.73%). Of the five clinical profiles assessed (BMI, RBS, WHR, presence of comorbidities and drug used) only the presence of comorbidity was associated with BP levels χ<sup>2 </sup>(10.01,3), p=0.018.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Participants had high blood pressure, BMI, WHR and WC readings as well as several comorbidities.</p> Elizabeth W. Kathuri Catherine Gichunge Lucy K. Gitonga Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 685 690 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240255 Problem and pro-social behaviour among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS and perception of healthcare workers on available medical and social support in Sokoto, northern Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALHIV) are likely to have behavioural, social, cognitive, and emotional problems. Early detection and treatment of these psychological issues in ALHIV is precarious to comprehensive HIV management. This study aimed to assess problem and pro-social behaviour among and to identify available health facility and social supports for ALHIV in Sokoto State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted among 236 adolescent- caregiver pairs. Key informant interviews were conducted among four health care workers. Quantitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23 while content analysis along thematic lines was done for qualitative data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of adolescents was 14.6±2.2 years while mean age of caregivers was 37.9±7.2 years. Prevalence of pro-social behaviour among ALHIV was 6.4% (self- report) and 15.2% (caregiver report). Seventy-eight (33.1%) caregivers reported peer problems and 15 (6.4%) emotional problems among their ALHIV. Based on self-report, 160 (67.8%) ALHIV reported experiencing peer problems and 3 (1.8%) emotional problems. Eleven (4.7%) adolescents reported having low social support, 136 (57.6%) had moderate and 89 (37.7%) high social support. Viral suppression showed significant association with SDQ scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The Sokoto State Ministry of Health and other organizations supporting HIV programs should ensure community enlightenment programs on HIV in order to reduce stigma associated with the disease.</p> Ahunna Z. Ezenwoko Mansur O. Raji Mansur O. Oche Remi A. Oladigbolu Asiya M. Kwaido Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 691 699 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240256 Staff motivation and associated factors in a health district hospital in Benin <p><strong>Background:</strong> The aim of this study was to find out about staff motivational related factors at Ouidah’s district hospital in southern Benin.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was an analytical cross-sectional study involving 108 agents randomly selected with proportional allocation by department. Motivation was measured, as were the intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with it, using a questionnaire based on a Likert scale. Factors associated with motivation were investigated using the following tests: t-student, ANOVA, post hoc, and logistic regression.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median age of those surveyed was 39 (33.50; 47.50) years, predominantly female (58.30%). Of the staff surveyed, 30.6% had an insufficient level of general motivation. Women were much more motivated by "collaboration" than men (p=0.004). The "achievement" factor was more motivating for staff with university-level education than for those with primary-level education (p=0.001). Those aged between 35 and 50 were less motivated than those under 35 [OR=0.19; 95% CI (0.04; 0.88)]. The opportunity to develop skills at work (p=0.018) and participation in decision-making (p=0.019) were associated with the general level of staff motivation. Reasons for demotivation were dominated by insufficient work materials (24.24%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Staff motivation can be improved through interventions that take into account identified factors.</p> Charles Jerome Sossa Colette Azandjeme Mamadou S. A. Balde Theodore Soussia Moussiliou N. Paraiso Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 700 706 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240257 Prevalence, pattern and risk factors for domestic violence against men in Sokoto Metropolis of Sokoto state, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Domestic violence against men (DVAM) is a major public health concern all over the world and remains unheard of because of the shame, guilt and embarrassment associated with it. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, pattern, knowledge and risk factors for DVAM in Sokoto metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried to assess the prevalence, patterns and risk factors for domestic violence against men in Sokoto metropolis. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 141 men were recruited into the study and administered with a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) statistical software version 25 and thereafter summarized using frequencies and percentages. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine level of associations and predictors of DVAM.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Almost half (49%) of the respondents were aware of DVAM while most (73.3%) had good knowledge of violence against men. The forms of violence experienced by the respondents include psychological (90.8%), physical (20%), and Sexual (90.8%). All the respondents experienced at least one form of violence and risk factors for violence included use of alcohol and other illicit drugs and keeping late at night.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Men are increasingly becoming victims of domestic violence with little or no attention being given to their plight as they are seen more as the aggressors. There is a need to take a holistic approach to the issues of domestic violence generally and the domestication of laws against violence perpetrated against men.</p> Oche M. Oche Habibullah Adamu Ismail Raji Yahaya Musa Abdulaziz Danmadami Ahunna Z. Ezenwoko Zainab A. Kontagora Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 707 716 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240258 Emotional eating patterns in a sample of Mexican adolescents <p><strong>Background:</strong> Eating patterns can be used to regulate emotions. Recent research has focused on emotional eating, aiming to determine the leading psychological causes of emotional eating based on the habits of a group of Mexican adolescent scholars that are between 15-17 years old (n=417).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Five mechanisms measured emotional aspects and eating patterns; they were analyzed with different statistical tools. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There weren't significant gender differences in the feelings of emotional restlessness between boys and girls, nor the expected feelings of anxiety, anger, frustration, and depression. There weren't variations in the types of emotional eating between the <em>normal weight </em>(average weight) and overweight groups. Nevertheless, there was a significant relationship between emotional eating (negative feelings) and bulimic eating patterns, showing more dependency on eating after receiving stimuli related to eating, regardless of satiety and hunger. Negative moods and emotions appeared as a result of parents trying to have more control over eating. When having obesity, there was less oral intake control, which led to the risk of overweight/obesity. Finally, less parental control over eating slightly increased the risk of overweight/obesity. However, the most risk is associated to diet restrictions and worry about food caused by fear to be overweight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Obesity in children and teenagers is a public health problem. Its prevention must be a priority; therefore, knowing and working on its risk factors is urgent. </p> Manuel De Gracia Patricia Trujano Carlos Nava Nuria Jiménez Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 717 724 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240259 Assessing accessibility of sexual reproductive health services among adolescents and young people living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) are fundamental human rights enshrined in national, regional, and international laws and agreements. This study aimed to determine the accessibility of SRHR services among young people living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a cross-sectional study involving a sample of 224 adolescents and young people from Kenya. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. Before the study commenced, approvals were acquired from the Kenyatta University ethics and review committee, the National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation, County Governments, and selected county and sub-county health facilities in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 68.2% of adolescents and young people (AYP) living with HIV/AIDS accessed SRH services with a significant difference in proportion between study counties (Nairobi city and Homabay counties) in Kenya (χ<sup>2</sup>=20.553; df=2; p&lt;0.0001). Nevertheless, 33% of them reported that there were challenges that affected access to SRHR services and the unavailability of some services. Therefore, there is a need to ensure enough and constant supply of commodities and supplies for comprehensive care services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study showed a statistically significant difference in the proportion of AYP living with HIV/AIDS who accessed SRH services in the study counties of Nairobi city and Homabay.</p> Edna N. Nyang'echi Justus O. S. Osero Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 725 732 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240260 Pressure ulcer organs and related factors in patients hospitalized in intensive care units <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pressure injuries are considered to be of important hospitalization side-effects, whereas it is projected that in the US 2.5 million patients get pressure injury treatments per year. These injuries cause a significant health burden for the patients and a seriously significant financial burden on the health-care systems around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers and related factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive analytical study that has been done on 200 patients hospitalized on ICU. Necessary information was collected by a checklist and then analyzed by using SPSS v 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 200 patients were selected to participate in this study which 82 of them were women. Mean age of the participants was 54.9 and mean BMI was 25±3.6. In this study, 47 pressure injury cases were reported. The most common place for pressure injuries were sacrum and foot heel. This study recognized the followings as a predicting factor for pressure injuries: higher age, higher BMI, female gender, longer hospitalization period, DM, smoking and alcohol consumption, prior infection, history of chemotherapy, history of radiotherapy, low level of position change program and using an organ facilitator like a ventilator.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> With most of the mentioned risk factors for pressure injuries being underlying factors, it is advised that health-care strategist consider increasing education of the people and with healthier lifestyles it is possible to see less of burdens like this on the health-care system.</p> Mehdi Ghiami-Hoor Ahmad Ghasemi Ghasem Abotalebi-Daryasari Abdolmajid Hedayati Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 733 737 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240261 Factors influencing the utilization of breast cancer screening services in Korean women using Andersen’s behavioral model <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer is a major health concern worldwide, and timely screening plays an important role in early detection and improved treatment outcomes. In this study, factors influencing the utilization of breast cancer screening services were examined using Andersen’s behavioral model, which is widely known as a framework for research on health services utilization.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, data from 2,602 women aged 35 and older were analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study shown that the utilization of breast cancer screening was significantly related to predisposing factors, including age and marital status. Moreover, enabling factors, such as income, were also found to be related to screening utilization. However, need factors, such as perceived health status and limitation of activity, did not show a significant association with the utilization of breast cancer screening services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study identified factors significantly associated with the utilization of breast cancer screening among Korean women. The findings of this study will contribute to better understand the factors influencing the utilization of breast cancer screening and the development of policies for breast cancer prevention.</p> Hyejin Park Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 738 742 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240262 Dental caries and fissure sealant prevalence in first permanent molars among school boys aged 9 to 12 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental caries is a major global public health concern. This study assessed dental caries prevalence and the use of fissure sealants on first permanent molars among Saudi Arabian boys aged 9–12 attending elementary schools to establish effective caries prevention strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cluster probability sampling was employed to select public and private male elementary schools from five distinct geographic regions in Riyadh city, KSA; 601 male students in the fourth grade (aged 9–10 years), fifth grade (aged 10–11 years), and sixth grade (aged 11–12 years) were included. Only the first permanent molars’ occlusal surfaces were evaluated. Data management was performed using Microsoft excel, statistical analyses were conducted using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), and the chi-square test was utilized.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The outcome demonstrated that 67.7% (n=407 children) had decayed, missing, or filled first permanent molars, indicating the presence of caries, while 32.3% (n=194) had caries-free first permanent molars. Only 6.8% (n=41) of children had received fissure sealants. At the tooth level, 37.7% (n=906) of examined teeth had decayed, and 8.1% (n=194) had fillings. The utilization rate of fissure sealants remained low at 3.9% (n=93), with 50.4% (n=1211) of first permanent molars remaining intact.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This cross-sectional study highlights a significant prevalence between caries and the limited utilization of fissure sealants on first permanent molars among Saudi Arabian boys, underscoring the urgent need for proactive preventative measures and educational initiatives.</p> Ibrahim M. Almajed Ibrahim H. Alomran Faisal I. Alkharji Abdulrahman I. Binakresh Abdulhakim M. Almutairi Khaled M. Alhabeeb Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 743 749 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240263 A case study of hospital contraceptive waste management practices in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Anambra State <p><strong>Background:</strong> Effective management of hospital waste is a critical component of a hospital’s infection control program and is central to occupational safety for healthcare workers. Thus, this study focused on the assessment of hospital contraceptive waste management practices at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional analytical study was carried out among healthcare workers selected using multistage sampling technique in 6 categories of healthcare workers in COOUTH. Data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and a World Health Organization (WHO) checklist and analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Associations and correlations between variables were tested at the bivariate level using Chi-square and t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 86 healthcare workers were surveyed. The majority of the respondents were females, nurses with RN qualification. The mean knowledge score of the respondents was 94.8%. The attitude of healthcare workers towards segregation of hospital contraceptive waste at source point was 71% while the usage of gloves in handling hospital waste was 95.3%. The major factor affecting contraceptive waste management practices in the facility was the respondent’s cultural beliefs. The lack of funds to finance standard waste disposal methods was noted to be a significant barrier to optimum waste management practices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study showed that despite the high level of knowledge of healthcare workers on hospital contraceptive waste management practice in COOUTH, the hospital contraceptive waste management practice is not functioning optimally in Anambra state. Hence, the need to reform the hospital waste management practice to achieve functional results.</p> Yanmeer S. Tyotswam Rosebella A. Iseme Eliphas G. Makunyi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 750 763 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240264 Impact of diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a cohort study in Bengaluru, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health challenge, particularly in regions with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aims to evaluate the impact of DM on the treatment outcomes of TB patients in Bengaluru, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cohort study, we examined 592 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, half of whom had a comorbid diagnosis of DM. Conducted in the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike area, the study included patients registered under the national TB elimination programme (NTEP). Data were collected on demographic characteristics, treatment adherence, sputum positivity, and treatment outcomes over six months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed a high prevalence of DM among TB patients. Significant associations were observed between DM and various challenges, including higher rates of sputum positivity, poor adherence to anti-TB and anti-diabetic medications, increased adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and a higher default rate. TB patients with DM had a 1.5 times higher risk of unsuccessful treatment outcomes compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the risk of poor outcomes, particularly relapse, increased substantially in the TB-DM group during the six-month follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our findings highlight the crucial need for integrated TB and DM management strategies. This includes routine DM screening for TB patients, personalized treatment regimens, and enhanced patient education and support. These measures are essential for improving treatment outcomes in TB patients with comorbid DM.</p> Kishore Shettihalli Gudegowda Deepak Murthy H. Jagadish Ranganath T. Sobagaiah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 11 2 764 768 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240108 Perception of breast cancer and self-breast examination practices among women in Lucknow, north India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide. It is one of the prime health issues in developed and developing countries because of the high prevalence of known risk factors. In the present study, we assess the knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) screening practices among women in the capital city, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, North India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas of Lucknow. The period of study was one year, starting from December 2020 to November 2021. Data were obtained from 400 adult women (212 rural and 193 urban) using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Participants aged &gt;20 years were randomly selected from two rural and two urban community health centres (CHCs). The questionnaire assessed respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, signs and symptoms, early detection methods, and knowledge and practices related to self-breast examination among women in Lucknow.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 400 respondents, only 33.5% (rural) and 55.96% (urban) women had heard of breast cancer. 17.55% (rural) and 13.47% (urban) women had heard about BSE. 4.72% (rural) and 8.81% (urban) women practice BSE occasionally. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, and screening methods was similarly poor in women of Lucknow.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This finding correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and occupation. There is a low level of awareness of breast cancer in Lucknow's urban and rural areas. BSE is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn it is high.</p> Shipra Reema Kumari Gitika Nanda Singh V. K. Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 769 777 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240265 Awareness of hemiplegic shoulder in hospital nurses: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The hemiplegic shoulder, characterized by pain, weakness, and limited range of motion, is a common complication affecting individuals who have experienced hemiplegia due to stroke or other neurological conditions. It significantly impacts the quality of life of patients and hampers their rehabilitation progress. In the context of healthcare, nurses play a pivotal role in the holistic care of patients with hemiplegia. Their knowledge, assessment skills, and interventions contribute to the prevention and management of hemiplegic shoulder, thereby aiding in the overall recovery of patients, awareness of this condition is crucial because early identification and timely interventions can prevent its progression and associated complications. Furthermore, comprehensive knowledge of hemiplegic shoulder management can contribute to patient comfort, better rehabilitation outcomes, and improved patient satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A self-made questionnaire was validated and circulated via Google Forms to hospital nurses of all age groups. 60 participants who fit the inclusion criteria and gave consent to participate in the study were selected. Their responses were recorded, data analysis was done and results were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 60 responses were recorded via Google Forms. The average age of the population was 32 years. Out of the entire population, only 30.77% of the entire population were aware of the hemiplegic shoulder condition.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> According to this study there is a lack of awareness about the hemiplegic shoulder in the population of nurses in India, they need to be made more aware of the safe practices of handling stroke patients.</p> Rhea M. Kankaria Twinkle Kundnani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 778 782 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240266 Disability, work status and deprivation among working age-group: shred of evidences from National Sample Survey 76th round data <p><strong>Background:</strong> In the Indian context, where a substantial portion of the population is of working age and 2.1% grapple with disabilities, as per the 2011 census, the emergence of diverse disability profiles within this demographic becomes a paramount concern. This issue holds profound consequences, directly impacting the nation's productivity and overall economic landscape. The focus of this study is a comprehensive examination of the repercussions of disability, honing in on the alteration and loss of occupational experiences among individuals in the working-age stratum.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The primary objective is the computation of a "disability deprivation index" for both India as a whole and its states, a multinomial logistic regression model is employed, seeking to elucidate the extent of the impact precipitated by the onset of disability in the working-age population. Multiple classification analysis is integral to determining adjusted percentages (probabilities) of changes of work, loss of work, and no loss or change of work, derived from multinomial logit regression, fostering a nuanced understanding of the issue.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study reveals that 2.2% of individuals previously gainfully employed experience disability, with a significant majority losing their livelihoods due to disabling conditions. The disability deprivation index provides insights into relative deprivation levels across states, highlighting Kerala as the least deprived and Bihar as the most deprived.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite commendable efforts by government and non-governmental organizations to address the needs of disabled population, the study underscores the stark reality that these provisions reach only a fraction of the disabled population, intensifying the severity of the situation concerning disability in India.</p> Jagriti Gupta Dipti Govil Angad Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 783 793 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240267 Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and its management strategies among females: a cross-sectional study in the tribal district, Koraput <p><strong>Background: </strong>Menstruation is a major and frequently incapacitating health problem that affects women all over the world. Tribal communities often possess unique cultural, socioeconomic, and healthcare disparities, which can affect the experience of dysmenorrhea in these populations. This paper presents an exploration of dysmenorrhea's prevalence, impact, and management among tribal women</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study design was adopted with a total of 341 participants with an age range between 15 to 49. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to identify the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea, menstrual characteristics, and strategies to manage dysmenorrhoea. Data collection was done for the period of 4 months (March 2020 to June 2020) and analysed using SPSS version 16.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study revealed a high prevalence of dysmenorrhea among tribal women (69.25%). The most common symptoms. A multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a significant association was found between dysmenorrhoea and the presence of a family history of dysmenorrhoea (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.18-3.42; p=0.009), the odds of developing dysmenorrhoea was 2.01 times higher among the female presence of a family history of dysmenorrhoea than absent and dysmenorrhoea with the presence of the clot (AOR: 2.99; 95% Cl: 1.81-4.94; p=0.000), the odds of developing dysmenorrhoea was 2.99 times higher among the female it history of present clot it than absent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>According to this study, tribal women are not well-prepared to deal with dysmenorrhea. The current findings not only clarify the detrimental effects of social stigma on menstrual health literacy, but they also have significant implications for evaluating and reforming current menstrual education standards.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Sunita Jena Krushna Chandra Sahoo Binod Kumar Patro Sandeep Kumar Tripathy Ramanand Pandit Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 794 801 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240268 Yoga as an adjunct therapy in elderly patients of chronic constipation <p><strong>Background:</strong> Constipation being very prevalent and common complaint in elderly people, an effective measure is needed to get the relief along with drugs for constipation used by clinicians. Our aim was to search out the potential applicability and effectiveness of yoga.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 30 elderly patients visiting medicine OPD for chronic constipation were included in study. Yoga group (15) was offered selected yogic practices in addition to drugs and control group drugs only. Patients kept record of drug intake on paper for 2 months of study. Data was obtained by using CAS score and frequency of drug intake. Data were analysed using t test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Baseline CAS scores for the yoga and control groups were 11.92±1.59 and 12.07±1.68 respectively. Post yoga CAS score for the yoga and control groups were 3.50±1.40 and 4.14±1.5 respectively. Frequency of drug intake in yoga and control groups in first month of yoga was 17.57±2.31 and 19.14±2.38 respectively. In 4<sup>th</sup> month of yoga practice frequency of drug intake in yoga and control groups was 11.07±2.16 and 18.35±2.56, which was highly significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Selected yoga practices can be used as an adjuvant therapy to treat chronic constipation in case of elderly. They can be effective in decreasing drug requirement in patients of chronic constipation. Yoga practices should be advised for patients of chronic constipation.</p> Kirti Chaudhary Amey Dhatrak Anupama Gupta Darshna Fulmali Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 802 806 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240269 Food taboo and food preference among the rural and urban lactating mothers of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Food taboo is a prohibition against consuming certain foods and food preference refers to the way in which people choose from among available comestibles on the basis of biological or economic perceptions including taste, value, purity, ease or difficulty of preparation, and the availability of fuel and other preparation tools. This cultural practice can be studied from different theoretical perspectives.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> For the present study total number of 948 [Hindu rural caste (347), Hindu urban caste (356), Lodha (245) rural areas] lactating mothers were chosen for collecting data regarding their socio-demographic features and the cultural practices (food taboo and food preferences during the period of lactation) followed by them. Both interview and case study method was applied for collecting data. SPSS 16.0 was used to entry and analyse the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Reveals that hindu caste rural participants showed significantly higher preference for certain food items compared to their urban counterpart and the Lodha participants. Significantly, more number of HCR participants showed preference towards certain food items during lactation to improve the quality of breast milk. Result also shows that there were significant differences across hindu caste rural than their urban counterpart and the Lodha participants with respect to all the variables related to food taboo.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Cultural practices have influenced the health behaviour like breastfeeding practices of the lactating mothers.</p> Shreyosi Mitra Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 807 814 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240270 Caregiver burden of the elderly in a selected urban community, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> In India, families are the primary source of support in caring for the elderly, whereas the potential group of family caregivers is shrinking. Caregivers need greater recognition and support to help them care for the elderly and to maintain their own health and well-being. Assessment of the perceived burden of caregivers helps identify those in need of support.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to estimate the perceived level of caregiver burden in families of elderly and to identify the association between selected socio-demographic characteristics of the caregivers and the level of caregiver burden. The caregivers of 50 elderly people categorized as mild and moderate dependents as per the Katz index of Independence were included in the study. The Zarith caregiver burden scale was used to evaluate their perceived level of caregiver burden.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Thirty-two (64%) caregivers were found to experience a mild to moderate perceived level of caregiver burden. An ordinal regression analysis between other burdens/responsibilities (predictor) of the caregiver and the perceived level of caregiver burden showed a significant association (χ<sup>2</sup>; p=0.009) between the two. An odds ratio of 6.7 (95% CI, 2.22 to 22.7; p=0.00115) showed that as the predictor increased, the event (caregiver burden) increased as well.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The majority of the caregivers suffer from a mild to moderate perceived level of caregiver burden. They experience more burden when they hold additional responsibility of caring for the elderly.</p> Chandana N. Marteena James Kokilavani C. Padmasree P. Soniya N. Jayanthi Tarugu Udayasree K. Kiranmayi Koni Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 815 822 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240271 A cross sectional study to assess knowledge and self-expressed practices regarding universal precautions among nursing students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Each year, 2 million healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to HBV, 9 million to HCV and 1 lakh 70 thousand to HIV. To reduce disease transmission, blood and body fluid precautions were recommended in 1983 by the United States Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Objective was to assess the knowledge and Self-Expressed Practices (SEPs) regarding universal precautions among B.Sc. Nursing (BSN) students and the association between knowledge and SEPs.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive approach and cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 200 students from BSN 1<sup>st</sup> year, 2<sup>nd</sup> year and 3<sup>rd</sup> years 60, 70 and 70, respectively, consented to participate in the study. Bio-data profile, a self-structured questionnaire to assess knowledge and a Likert scale to assess SEP.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only 2.9% of students of BSN 2<sup>nd</sup> year fall in the adequate knowledge category, whereas 56.67 % (n=60) students of 1<sup>st</sup> year, 71.5% (n=70) students of 2<sup>nd</sup> year, and 68.6% (n=70) students of 3<sup>rd</sup> year belonged to moderate knowledge category. 86.67% of students in BSN 1<sup>st</sup> year, 78.57% of students 2<sup>nd</sup> year and 68.57% of students 3<sup>rd</sup> year fall in the adequate SEPs category. Only BSN 3<sup>rd</sup> year students showed a significant association between knowledge and SEPs sum total score (p=0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Maximum students had moderate knowledge, but SEPs were in an inadequate category. Students repeatedly receive training regarding universal precautions as they are the future of the health care system, and continuous surveillance of occupational hazards should be conducted to ensure safety and awareness among students and other Health Care Workers (HCWs).</p> Nisha Khandelwal Parul Negi Parminder Kaur Parwinder Kaur Shruti Manisha Nagi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 823 829 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240272 Prevalence of hygiene awareness during menstruation period among rural women of West Bengal, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Menstruation is a physiological process of women. Reproductive infection during the menstrual period is a common phenomenon in women in rural areas of India. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of hygiene awareness in rural women of West Bengal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty rural women from the West Medinipur District of West Bengal were studied. Questioner methods were followed to know the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards menstruation hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Proper knowledge of menstruation was absent in a large number of women but a large number of women (80%) took care of their hygiene during menstrual periods. 70% of women agreed to maintain personal hygiene to prevent reproductive-related diseases. 44% of women had a positive attitude towards the cleanness of genital areas with clean water whereas 56% of women did not show any interest. 96% of women change sanitary pads for 2-4 times a day to maintain menstrual hygiene. For disposing of used sanitary pads, 80% of women use home garbage areas whereas 20% of women use open fields outside the home.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> From the above study it could be concluded that hygiene awareness during the menstruation period among rural women of West Bengal, India is not satisfactory. Educational intervention is required.</p> <p> </p> Shyamali Bera Anup Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 830 834 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240273 Impact of use of iron fortified iodised salt beyond 12 months on haemoglobin levels <p><strong>Background:</strong> Use of iron fortified iodised salt (IS) for 12 months, resulted in improvement in haemoglobin (Hb) in women, children and men. There is no published data on impact of DFS use beyond 12 months on Hb levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based open randomised study to assess impact of use of DFS on Hb was discontinued after 12 months due to COVID 19 related lockdown. These families used IS for six months during lockdown; they were willing to continue using the salt provided for further one year. These families were re-randomized into three groups and given the assigned salt for further 12 months and Hb, ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were estimated at 12 months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Improvement in the mean Hb was 0.5 g/dl in women who had used IS earlier and DFS under second randomisation and 0.3 g/dl in those who had used DFS under first and second randomisation. Mean Hb at 30 months was higher in those who had used DFS for 24 months as compared to those who had used IS for 18 months and DFS for 12 months. The deterioration in mean Hb following discontinuation of DFS for 6 and 18 months was small.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> DFS use for the second year resulted in a further increase in Hb in those who had used DFS earlier. The relatively small deterioration in mean Hb following discontinuation of DFS might at least be in part due to the impact of nutrition and health education and access to health and nutrition services.</p> Prema Ramachandran Kamini Prabhakar Honey Kumari K. Kalaivani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 835 840 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240274 Navigating the caregiver’s strain: psychosocial well-being among sandwich generation caregivers in India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sandwich generation caregivers, while providing simultaneous care to two generations, face unique challenges and responsibilities. This research tried to understand the intricate aspects of this caregiving paradigm, with an emphasis on the difficulties faced by the sandwich generation in India and its impact on their psychosocial well-being.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used the Montgomery Borgatta caregiver burden scale to measure the burden experienced by the caregivers. Furthermore, both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to understand the effects of background factors on the burden experienced by the caregiver.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings demonstrate significant associations with demographic characteristics such as age, caste, education, income, religion, and employment status, emphasizing the multidimensional nature of the burdens. Younger caregivers experienced greater objective and demand burdens, suggesting that the caregiving challenges intensify as caregivers age. Higher education and income were associated with increased subjective demand burden, possibly due to higher expectations and greater responsibilities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study results highlight the critical need for tailored support systems that identify and address the unique issues of sandwich generation caregiving. As population ageing continues to impact societies worldwide, understanding and addressing the concerns of sandwich generation caregivers is crucial for the well-being of individuals, families, and communities.</p> A. H. Sruthi Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 841 850 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240275 Amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole minimum inhibitory concentration against 85 strains of Rhizopus spp, isolated from the patients having COVID-19 associated mucormycosis in North India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mucormycosis cases are managed by extensive debridement of the affected tissues, with correction of predisposing risk factors and antifungal drugs. Amphotericin B is the drug of choice; however, few azoles also have a good activity against Mucorales. Therefore, the present study was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antifungal drugs against Mucorales, causing COVID-19 associated mucormycosis in North India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>After obtaining written and informed consent, we processed the received tissue, sputum, and gastric lavage samples as per standard mycological procedures. Subsequently, we determined itraconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole and amphotericin B MIC against the isolated Mucorales (one from each patient) by broth microdilution using CLSIM38A<sub>3</sub> guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We received 615 samples from the enrolled 269 patients with CAM. We observed broad aseptate hyphae in 329 fresh tissues, ten sputum and one gastric lavage sample, whereas 163 follow-up excised tissue had broad aseptate hyphae. In addition, 209 Mucorales were isolated with a predominance of <em>Rhizopus arrhizus</em> (n=183), followed by <em>Rhizopus microsporus</em> (n=21) and <em>Rhizopus homothallicus</em> (n=5). We determined MIC against 77 and 8 strains of <em>R. arrhizus </em>and<em> R. microsporus</em>, respectively. Posaconazole had the least MIC. 0.25, 1, 0.5, and 2µg/ml were the MIC<sub>50</sub> of posaconazole, amphotericin B, isavuconazole and itraconazole against <em>R. arrhizus</em> strains, respectively, whereas it was 0.125, 0.1875, 0.5 and 2 µg/ml against <em>R. microsporus</em>, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Lower posaconazole MIC makes it a preferred drug for managing the mucormycosis cases; however, availability and cost are the limitations. Thus, amphotericin B and itraconazole may be used in such conditions.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Munesh Kumar Gupta Jaya Chkravarty Vaishnavi Upadhyay Bhupendra Kumar Ragini Tilak Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 851 855 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240276 Comprehensive assessment of the psychological well-being of school going adolescent girls in Chandigarh, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescence, a crucial stage in human development, involves significant physical and psychological changes. Unfortunately, these transformations often go unnoticed, leading to an increase in psychological issues among adolescents. Objective of the study was to have a comprehensive assessment of the reasons due to which the adolescents are suffering from high psychological distress in school-going adolescent girls in Chandigarh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chandigarh schools included 168 adolescent females aged 13 to 19. The data collection utilized a multi-stage random sampling approach.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The research revealed that academic pressure 147 (87.5%), financial concerns of the family 77 (45.8%), difficulties in communication with family and peers 86 (51.2%) and the negative thinking pattern (83.4%, n=140) are affecting the adolescent girls' mental well-being. The study revealed that a significant number of participants frequently experienced emotions such as nervousness, guilt, social anxiety, insecurity, discrimination, and difficulty concentrating. Additionally, a substantial portion of the group reported instances of sleeplessness 92 (54.8%) and feelings of loneliness 136 (81%). Participants also indicated engaging in coping mechanisms like over thinking, procrastination, and overeating when facing stress. Alarmingly, some individuals turned to smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug abuse as stress-relief strategies, raising concerns for the community.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study highlighted the fact that supportive environment at home and in schools, with open communication and counseling to address these issues. Work should be done to reduce the stigma associated with mental health issue and encourage open conversations about mental health to help adolescents feel more comfortable seeking support.</p> <p> </p> Chandni Singh Dinesh K. Walia Savita Prashar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 856 862 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240277 Bio-social correlates of indoor air pollution among women residing in rural areas of Mysuru <p><strong>Background:</strong> Indoor air pollution (IAP) remains a major global public health hazard more so in developing countries where the use of biomass fuels is still very common. Since women tend to be in charge of cooking and young children commonly spend time with their mothers while they are cooking, women and young children are disproportionately affected. In this background, the present study was proposed to assess the bio-social correlates of IAP among women residing in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural field practice areas of JSS Medical College, Mysuru for six months. Totally 210 households were included by probability proportionate to the size sampling technique. Data was collected by structured questionnaire with details on socio-demographic characteristics, house and fuel characteristics and indoor air pollution meter values of particulate matter (PM) 1, 2.5, 10 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 210 study participants, 28 (13%) had indoor air pollution in their houses. 99% of the households were using LPG. The mean concentrations of pollutants like PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 were higher among the houses with indoor air pollution compared to their counterparts (p&lt;0.001). A statistically significant association was found between age, socioeconomic status, and poverty line and the presence of indoor air pollution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study showed that IAP had a strong relation to socio-cultural factors such as age, poverty and economic level. As women are involved in cooking in the majority of Indian households, they are more prone to be affected by the negative effects of solid fuel usage.</p> <p> </p> Yogendra D. R. Praveen Kulkarni Sayana Basheer Pragadesh R. Nayanabai Shabadi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 863 869 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240278 Bacillus Calmette-Guerin lymphadenitis in children: an underdiagnosed entity <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) lymphadenitis is a common complication after BCG vaccination. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a feasible and cost-effective procedure for the diagnosis and management of this entity. Awareness of this entity in cytology is important to avoid misdiagnosis, as the cytomorphologic features are very similar to tuberculosis. The present study described the clinical presentation and detailed cytomorphologic features in patients with BCG lymphadenitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective study from 2018 to 2022 involving a total of 27 patients who presented with isolated left axillary or cervical lymphadenopathy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Age at presentation ranged from 1 to 24 months. The male- to-female ratio was 2.75:1. Majority of the children had enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes followed by cervical nodes. Cytomorphology showed the presence of dense acute and chronic inflammatory cells, epithelioid cell granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, histiocytic aggregates, reactive lymphoid cells, lymphohistiocytic clusters and calcification. Necrotic background was present in 25 (92.6%) cases. Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli was positive in 17 (62.9%) cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A high index of clinical suspicion for BCG lymphadenitis should be kept in mind for children who are recently vaccinated. Diagnosis of this entity is based primarily on clinical grounds. However, cytology and microbiological examination are encountered as part of clinical work up of lymph node swelling. FNAC in conjunction with clinical presentation is useful for diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis and avoid an unwarranted tubercular treatment.</p> Neha Singh Prajwala Gupta Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 870 873 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240279 Unveiling the impact of COVID-19 on diabetics: vaccination status and infection rates in a North Indian state-insights from a primary healthcare centre-based non-communicable disease registry <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients with diabetes are at an increased risk of severe infection and mortality due to COVID-19. Absence of effective pharmacological treatments, vaccination remains one of the most effective means of controlling the pandemic. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 infection among patients with diabetes mellitus and assess the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination among these patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The patients were identified from a primary healthcare centre (PHC) based non-communicable disease (NCD) registry at PHC Najafgarh, New Delhi. A total of 480 patients were included in this study. The data was retrieved from NCD registry and vaccination status was confirmed from their vaccination certificates.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study 91.3% (438) of diabetic patients had received the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine and the coverage for second dose and third dose among these same patients are 84.6% and 27.3% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Only a quarter of all the patients have received precautionary dose (3rd dose), and almost a tenth of all the patients have not even received a single dose of COVID-19 vaccine, the patients should be counselled and encouraged for vaccination. Also, it is recommended to take COVID-19 vaccination into consideration while taking the medical history of diabetics.</p> <p> </p> Aninda Debnath Ravindra Nath Anubhav Mondal Geeta Yadav Shveta Lukhmana Jugal Kishore Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 874 878 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240280 A cross sectional study on awareness and prevalence of tobacco use among adult males of Vanakbara village, Diu district <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tobacco is used in various forms worldwide. The consumption of each pattern is different by the geographic area, economic status, socio-cultural and religious influence. The tobacco problem in India is more complex than that of any other country in the world, with a significant number of tobacco-related diseases and deaths. Over the years, India’s position has risen from third largest to the second largest unmanufactured tobacco consuming country in the world. This study's findings will aid in the future planning of tobacco control and prevention in Vanakbara village of Diu district.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Community base cross-sectional study was conducted among adult males of Vanakbara village, Diu district. A study was conducted from September to November 2020, A sample was selected from the population by using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a preformed questionnaire. Data was entered in MS excel and analysis was done using statistical software like SPSS. Average, and the percentage considered and the frequency table and graphs were prepared wherever applicable.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the study, smokeless tobacco use was more prevalent among adult males (56.6%) than smoked tobacco (14.6%). The most common form of smokeless tobacco used was mawa. According to the majority of respondents (44.3%), smoking was started because they believe it aids in concentration at work, followed by their friends. The study revealed that 88.6% of respondents are aware that tobacco consumption leads to oral cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our study indicates that there is an urgent need for taking actions aiming at increasing effectiveness of enforcing applicable tobacco control regulations in fisherman units.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Minaxi N. Solanki Dhara Zalavadiya Abhishek Amratlal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 879 884 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240281 Assessment of level of stress among post-graduate trainees working in tertiary care hospital in a district of Assam <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medical education is itself very vast, stressful and challenging. Stressful condition can lead to many psychological responses like anxiety, depression, irritability, restlessness, sleep disturbances etc. The postgraduate students are at risk of developing stress due to their professional duties, workloads, peer pressure, academic activities and so on. Thus, the study has been initiated to find out the level of stress and its related factors among the post graduate students in a Tertiary care hospital of Assam.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross-sectional study was conducted on all the postgraduate students in a tertiary care hospital during March’23 to June’23. By convenience sampling technique around 108 post graduate students were participated in the study. The level of stress had been assessed by perceived stress scale (PSS-10), stress related symptoms from self reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), and sleep quality by insomnia severity index scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study found out that 98 (90.74%) had moderate, 6 (5.55%) high and 4(3.74%) low level of stress. The stress was associated with marital status, gender, residence and clinical and non-clinical departments. Out of 75 male (69.45%), 72 (96% ) moderate, 2 (2.6% ) high and 1 (1.3%) low level of stress and 33 (30.55%) female participants, 81.8% had moderate, 4 (1212%) high, and 2 (6.06%) had low level of stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study had concluded that stress was found to be prevalent among the study participants.</p> Alpana Priya Rabha Uddipta Bhaskar Das Upama Deka Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 885 892 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240282 Statistical analysis of human papillomavirus prevalence and related factors in the North Tamil Nadu population: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is 95% caused by the consistent infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (Hr HPV). The incidence of this cancer is higher in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This study is a cohort study consisting of an analysis of data from patient detail and consent form 120 HPV-suspected samples collected from north Tamil Nadu namely Chennai, Pochampalli, Vellore, Kanchipuram, Dharmapuri, and Ambur. The incidence of HPV is seen to be slightly raised in these regions. This study deals with exploring factors like age, cervix conditions, comorbidities, and symptoms for testing in correlation with HPV positivity. All the values interpreted are in significance p&lt;0.05. All statistics was calculated using SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This is a first-of-its-kind study in this population. This study aims to highlight the correlating factors of HPV infection and standardize a pattern to screen women. This timely screening will greatly reduce the impact of HPV-dependent cervical cancer. Factors like diabetes, inflamed cervix, erosion and age were seen to be positively correlated with HPV positive status and consequently with cervical cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> These factors may be applied to other population groups and predictive parameters for HPV dependent cervical cancers may be established.</p> Poornima Shyam S. Subramaniam Vijaiyan Siva Shyama Subramaniam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 893 898 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240283 Assessment of awareness, attitude, knowledge and application towards dental ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorder among dental students and professionals in Ahmedabad <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dental ergonomics, the science of optimizing the workplace for dental professionals, is essential for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and ensuring the long-term health of dental practitioners.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the awareness and attitude of dental students and professionals towards dental ergonomics, with the collected data subsequently subjected to rigorous statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A 51% of dental students and 78% of dental professionals were aware about dental ergonomics. Only 12% of the dental students have attended a course regarding dental ergonomics, 73% of the dental professionals among study population have experienced musculoskeletal pain due to dental practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The survey revealed that dental students exhibited lower awareness of dental ergonomics compared to dental professionals, with a notable discrepancy in the implementation of ergonomic principles. Additionally, a significant prevalence of pain related to MSDs was observed among the dental professionals surveyed.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Harsh Solanki Vasudha Sodani Bhumi Sarvaiya Keyur Chauhan Reetu Shah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 899 903 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240284 Analysis of the total wastage of blood bags and various blood components in a blood bank of a tertiary care hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Majority of the medical and surgical emergency procedures being dependent on Blood and blood components, it has played a vital role in patient management. This enlightens the importance and need of proper utilization of blood and its components by ensuring minimal wastage. Aim was to determine the percentage of blood and blood component wastage in a blood bank of a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective study of donors from January 2015 to December 2020 was done in a blood bank of a tertiary care hospital located in western Maharashtra.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total blood bags collected, 411 (2.8%) blood bag units were discarded due to seropositivity, 373 whole blood bags and 2588 platelet bags had to be discarded. The most common reason for discard of platelet bags were due to expiry; 1789 FFP (fresh frozen plasma) bags, 131 bags of PRBC (packed red blood cells), 85 bags of plasma and 235 cryoprecipitate bags were discarded due to various reasons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Blood being an irreplaceable and important resource, needs to be properly utilized and ideally zero percent wastage should be encouraged. Training programmes for doctors on usage of blood / blood components is highly recommended.</p> Shivkumar Kori Yogesh R. Yadav Sujata Banerjee Vaibhav Bari Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 904 907 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240285 A cross-sectional study of breastfeeding device use and its determinants in mothers attending immunization outpatient department of an urban health training centre attached to a teaching medical institute <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breastfeeding as a practice was recommended by World Health Organization. Breastfeeding devices are used to feed the expressed breastmilk to infants, it is one determinant which is linked with both favourable and unfavourable outcomes in exclusive breastfeeding practices among term and pre-term infants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross sectional, observational study carried at an urban health training centre. The study subjects were mother and their infants residing in the urban slum. Objectives of the research were to determine the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding, to find various breastfeeding devices used by mothers and the factors associated with it. A total of 230 mother-infant dyads were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority of mothers belonged to 21-30-year age group, housewives (93%) and Hindu by religion (68%). Majority received education till secondary school (57%) and 3.5% were illiterate. Majority had their first child before they turned 30 and most of the infants were female (55%). Over 3/4th of the infants were being exclusively breastfed, initiated on breastfeeding within first hour of birth (41%) and 1/5th received pre-lacteal feed, Breastfeeding device use was noted in 15 participants (6.5%), in which majority were using spoon followed by bottle. Mothers using breastfeeding devices showed higher proportion of exclusive breastfeeding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Use of breastfeeding device showed association with mother’s occupation, lower age of mother at the time of marriage and first delivery while religion and parity of mothers were not significantly associated with it.</p> Amit A. Wanjare Sujata S. Pol Seema S. Bansode-Gokhe Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 908 914 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240286 Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its prevention among high school students of Anantnag district, Jammu and Kashmir, India: a pre-experimental study <p><strong>Background:</strong> India has become one of the most populous country in the world, and it would be a disaster if our adolescent children fell into the trap of HIV/AIDS, which not only disrupts the healthcare system of any country but also has an impact on the morals of the people. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to understand the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its prevention among high school children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a pre-experimental study in which 60 high school students participated. The knowledge was assessed using demographic characteristics and 30-item knowledge questionnaires. SPSS V16.0 was used for the data analysis. Paired t-test, descriptive statistics, and chi-square analysis were used to check the association.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the study, the majority of the participants, 46 (76.66%), had inadequate knowledge, and only 14 (23.33%) had moderate knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. The paired “t”-test value was 54.63 at the level of p&lt;0.0001, which was significant. We also found multiple associations between gender, qualification of the mother, occupation of the mother, qualification of the father, occupation of the father, type of family, and source of information.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was observed that there was relatively less knowledge among high school students regarding HIV/AIDS and its prevention. However, after the teaching program, the knowledge improved. Therefore, a multi-dimensional approach should be taken by the school authority to create awareness campaigns for the students.</p> Munaza Reyaz Rahul Shil Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 915 920 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240287 A cross sectional study to assess the anxiety, stress and depression among nurses during COVID-19 at selected hospitals, Udaipur <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aims to assess anxiety, stress, and depression levels among nurses working during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A quantitative non-experimental approach was employed, utilizing a descriptive cross-sectional design with 300 nurses selected through simple random sampling. Data collection included demographic and clinical variables. Anxiety, stress, and depression levels were measured using the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), perceived stress scale, and Hamilton depression rating scale, respectively. Pearson's correlation and Chi-square tests were used for analysis in statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A majority of staff nurses experienced mild anxiety (53.7%), stress (64.3%), and depression (71.7%). Scores indicated mean anxiety (14.42, SD=4.46), stress (13.74, SD=3.13), and depression (18.23, SD=4.23). Positive correlations were found between stress-anxiety (p=0.002, r=0.376) and anxiety-depression (p=0.040, r=0.119). A weak correlation existed between stress and depression (p=0.068, r=0.105). Anxiety correlated with age, professional experience, and marital status (p&lt;0.05), while stress correlated with age and professional experience (p&lt;0.05). Depression correlated with professional experience and marital status (p&lt;0.05). Work-related variables and fears were associated with anxiety and stress but not depression among staff nurses during COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study underscores widespread mild anxiety, stress, and depression among nurses during the pandemic, emphasizing their interconnection. Age, professional experience, and marital status influenced mental health outcomes. Tailored interventions and targeted support are crucial to address these challenges and enhance nursing well-being. Healthcare institutions should prioritize implementing such strategies to bolster nurses' resilience and effectiveness in navigating ongoing and future challenges.</p> <p> </p> Jitendra Pujari M. U. Mansuri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 921 935 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240288 Lichen planus and its clinical variants: a retrospective study in a tertiary care centre <p><strong>Background:</strong> Lichen planus is a chronic pruritic immune-mediated disorder involving skin, oral and genital mucosa, nail and hair with several morphological variants. Although not lethal, the chronic nature of the disease have significant impact on patient’s quality of life and their psychological wellbeing. Aim was to find out clinico-epidemiological profile of LP and its variants including Dermoscopic features and its association with systemic diseases like Diabetes, Hypertension and Hypothyroidism.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a hospital based retrospective observational study. Medical records of all patients with LP during the period from January to December 2022 were noted. Various clinico-epidemiological and dermoscopic features along with systemic disease association were analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 257 cases were reported. Most common age group affected was 41-60 yrs. Male:female ratio was 0.72:1 with female preponderance. LP in children (&lt;18 yrs) was seen in 9.7% of cases. Classical LP was the most common type (29.5%) followed by Mucosal LP (12.45%). More than one variant was seen in 20.6% of cases. LP in association with systemic diseases was seen in 36.1% of cases with DM being the most frequent. Most common dermoscopic features were pigmentation (100%) followed by Wickham’s striae (83.6%) and vascular findings (49.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>LP is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting middle aged adults with slight female preponderance. Childhood LP contributed to significant number of cases. Classical LP was the commonest clinical variant observed. LP is associated with DM, HTN and hypothyroidism. Dermoscopy is an useful tool in diagnosis and differentiating from other similar conditions.</p> <p> </p> Talluru Vani Talamala Sampath Priya Kumar M. Suma Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 936 941 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240289 Orthodontic bracket bonding techniques and adhesion failures <p>The introduction of glass ionomer cements in orthodontics aimed to address the drawbacks of the acid-etch technique using composite resins, including demineralization, enamel damage, and potential allergic reactions. These cements release fluoride over time, potentially protecting against demineralization. Glass ionomer cements, despite their benefits in reducing adhesive residue and protecting against demineralization, showed higher bond failure rates compared to composite resins. This is attributed to their sensitivity to application techniques and moisture, along with a delayed setting time. In contrast, light-cured composite resins, preferred over chemically-cured resins in recent years, offer advantages such as ease of use, consistent handling, and controlled setting. However, early trials indicated higher bond failure rates for light-cured resins, a finding not consistently replicated in later studies. While glass ionomer cements offer certain advantages, their higher bond failure rate poses a significant limitation. Light-cured composite resins, with their user-friendly characteristics, have become the preferred choice in orthodontic bonding despite initial concerns about higher bond failure rates.</p> Ebraheem Hamed Almoabady Reem Mohammed Alkahtani Noura Fahad Alotaibi Mona Abdulmohsen Alsuli Amera Saud Alonazi Badriah Ayed Alanazi Sara Ahmed Madani Sara Abdulaziz Bin Ghadeer Hawraa Mohammad Alabbad Lulwa Ali Al Wahbi Mohammed Abdullah Alqahtani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-13 2024-01-13 11 2 971 976 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240018 Long-term maintenance and complications of fixed dental prostheses <p>Fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), commonly known as dental bridges, play a pivotal role in restorative dentistry, offering patients a means to regain oral function and aesthetics in cases of tooth loss. These prosthetic devices, anchored to natural teeth or dental implants, bridge the gap created by missing teeth, improving chewing, speech, and smile aesthetics. However, the successful deployment of FDPs requires not only their initial placement but also long-term maintenance and an understanding of potential complications. Effective oral hygiene, regular dental surveillance, and professional dental cleanings are essential for preserving FDP longevity. Vigilance is crucial as FDPs, while resistant to cavities themselves, can pose challenges in cleaning around abutment teeth. Complications, including dental caries, periodontal issues, crown or bridge fractures, abutment tooth deterioration, aesthetic alterations, sensory sensitivity, and even prosthetic failure, are potential concerns. Timely intervention and preventive measures are key to addressing these issues. When complications arise, dental practitioners can often repair superficial problems like crown fractures. Profound or recurrent complications may require more extensive interventions, such as fabricating a new bridge or considering alternative restorative options like dental implants or removable partial dentures. By embracing these principles of maintenance and management, patients can optimize the durability and functionality of their FDPs while minimizing associated risks, ensuring a healthy and confident smile for years to come.</p> Haitham Mohammed Binhuraib Sundus Saad Alqarni Nagam Mohammed Mohsen Abeer Ahmad Alharbi Ahmed Ibrahim Alghamdi Adeeb Maseer Almotairi Abdulrahman Hussain Alhussain Rahaf Ayman Felemban Anwar Salem Alzahrani Ehdaa Sameer Eyouni Razan Ibrahim Alhajjaji Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-13 2024-01-13 11 2 977 981 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240019 Esophageal achalasia, an unexpected complication of COVID-19 post palatoplasty: a case report and literature review <p>The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-COV-2, has led to significant mortality worldwide. Despite the declaration in May, 2023 by the World Health Organization (WHO), that the COVID-19 pandemic in no longer a public health emergency of international concern, some survivors are experiencing post-infection complications, including esophageal achalasia. Esophageal achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impaired esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction. This study reviews the literature to explore the association between COVID-19 and achalasia and also presents a case of a 9-month-old child diagnosed with achalasia following COVID-19 infection; a unique occurrence in a young child. This study comprises a case report and a literature review. Clinical data for the case report was collected from medical records, while the literature review included a search of electronic databases from January 2020 to October 2023. Keywords related to COVID-19 and esophageal achalasia were utilized to conduct a search in electronic databases resulting in 9 selected articles. This study underscores the emerging concern of esophageal achalasia as a post-infection complication of COVID-19. It provides a unique case of a young child developing achalasia after COVID-19 infection and reviews the limited literature on this association. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms and potential preventative measures for this rare complication in COVID-19 survivors.</p> Azuka R. Njokanma Adetayo Aborisade Olugbenga O. Ojo Adewale C. Adeyemi Ada H. Njokanma Collins C. Adumah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 982 988 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240294 Ensuring global health: a comprehensive review of vaccine regulation with a focus on the Indian perspective <p>The regulation of vaccines is crucial for ensuring public health and safety. A global perspective on vaccine regulation, with focus on the Indian approach in vaccine regulation, was analysed. The historical evolution of vaccine regulation, highlights significant events that shaped regulatory systems. The role of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in ensuring the safety, efficacy, and quality of vaccines is discussed, along with the pivotal role of the WHO through its prequalification program. The stages of the regulatory review process, including pre-licensure review and post-licensure surveillance, are outlined. The Indian perspective is examined, with a focus on the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) as the primary regulatory authority. The rigorous vaccine approval process, emergency use authorization, vaccine distribution, and administration, as well as post-marketing surveillance, are discussed. The Indian government's participation in international collaborations and emphasis on indigenous vaccine development are highlighted. This comprehensive review highlights the importance of vaccine regulation and the efforts undertaken by the Indian government to ensure the safety, efficacy, and accessibility of vaccines.</p> Nitesh Kumar Mukesh Darshan Farzana Islam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 989 993 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240295 Vaccine hesitancy amongst the tribal population of India: a comparative scenario between COVID-19 vaccination and routine immunization <p>Vaccine hesitancy plays a crucial role in slowing down the efforts towards achieving an immunized and healthy society, particularly, children and women. VH is very conspicuous among the economically marginalized tribal and indigenous population. Previous research papers have not presented a comparative scenario between VH for RI and COVID-19 and have not discussed in detail different reasons behind VH from the gender perspective among tribal population. The key research question for this systematic review is whether the vaccine hesitancy for routine child vaccination among the tribal population will reduce or escalate or show no change after COVID-19 vaccination drive. This paper using Google Scholar database identified the research paper and reports, published between 2013 and 2023, and synthesized the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy among the tribal population. While hesitancy due to reasons such as the safety and trust concerns, related to vaccines and the government; strong dependency on natural remedies; decision making dominated by social and cultural norms prevailing since ages; emerged as the key resistant in case of routine immunization among the tribal population, these were observed to be similar, to a large extent, in case of COVID-19, as well, in spite of two different age groups being the target of the vaccination drive. The paper identified key enablers and barriers of vaccine acceptance, which will be insightful for policy makers, healthcare agencies and professionals working to eliminate VH among tribal and indigenous population.</p> Satabdi Barman Prachi Sharma Alok Srivastava Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 994 1002 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240296 Narrative resilience: exploring the role of personal narratives in shaping self-concept and psychological resilience in cancer patients and survivors <p>Maintaining the continuity of the 'self' is crucial for finding meaning and ensuring psychological well-being. However, the traumatic encounter with cancer disrupts the normal flow of life stories, challenging coherence. Beyond its physical toll, cancer challenges one's sense of self, identity and overall psychological resilience. As personal narratives unfold, encompassing evolving life stories from one's reconstructed past to the present and envisioned future, inherently reflecting the dynamic conception of self, it becomes imperative to investigate how these narratives shape self-concept and resilience throughout the intricate emotional and psychological landscape of the cancer journey. This narrative review explores the intricate relationship among personal narratives, self-concept and psychological resilience in the context of cancer. The study draws on various theoretical constructs, encompassing self-concept, coping, narrative identity, and psychological resilience theories, to provide a comprehensive exploration of the psychological processes involved. Incorporating insights from both Western and Indian philosophical traditions, the review not only enriches the theoretical framework but also emphasizes the practical implications for healthcare practices. Integrating narrative resilience principles into medical education and advocating for culturally sensitive approaches are deemed essential for advancing patient-centred care. The study underscores both practical and theoretical contributions to psycho-oncology, emphasizing the need for personalized narrative interventions, empathetic healthcare strategies, longitudinal studies and innovative technologies that recognize and support the intricate interplay between personal narratives, self-concept and psychological resilience in the cancer survivorship journey.</p> Ramya S. Praveen K. Sheelam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 1003 1010 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240297 Unveiling the role of procalcitonin in COVID-19: a literature review <p>Procalcitonin (PCT), a key hormone regulating calcium homeostasis, has previously shown the potential to differentiate between bacterial and viral infections. However, when we move further into the field of COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented question was raised: Can PCT levels increase without bacterial co-infection in SARS-CoV-2 infection? This review systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles on procalcitonin (PCT) in the context of COVID-19 published from 2019 to 2023. Inclusion criteria focused on relevant articles, excluding non-English publications. Increasing PCT levels were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases, often interpreted as evidence of bacterial co-infection. However, the role of PCT in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. The proposed mechanisms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can stimulate the production of PCT even in the absence of bacterial co-infection by modulating the interferon (IFN) pathway and reducing the regulation of monocyte function. Furthermore, PCT has implications in antibiotic management, with guidelines recommended to avoid antibiotics in patients with low serum PCT levels. Increased PCT values show associations with the severity of disease, including increased mortality, which further underlines the need for a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the PCT in COVID-19. This review emphasizes the evolving significance of PCT in COVID-19, with elevated PCT levels emerging as a valuable prognostic indicator, aiding in disease severity assessment and management. However, the intricate dynamics of PCT in COVID-19 demand further investigation, particularly in distinguishing viral infection from bacterial co-infection.</p> Syed Samiullah Amber Ahmad Mohamed A. Patni Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 1011 1015 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240298 Trends in pneumatic compression devices and their impact on patient outcomes: a review <p>Pneumatic compression devices have seen a remarkable evolution in recent years with innovative designs and applications. This review explores the trends in pneumatic compression devices and their impact on patient outcomes. Pneumatic compression devices are widely used in various medical contexts, such as wound care, lymphedema management, and venous thromboembolism prevention. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies that investigate the effectiveness of these devices in improving patient outcomes. We discuss the evolving technology, clinical applications, and evidence of their impact on parameters like wound healing, edema reduction, and venous thromboembolism prevention. Through an analysis of the current literature, we aim to provide valuable insights for healthcare practitioners, policymakers, and researchers, emphasizing the significance of pneumatic compression devices in modern patient care.</p> Gagandeep Kaur Nisha Khandelwal Bhavna Rani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 1016 1021 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240299 Barriers to comprehensive nutrition care for cancer patients: a review <p>This comprehensive review studies the multifaceted barriers that delay cancer patients from accessing adequate nutrition throughout their cancer journey. Addressing these barriers is paramount, considering their profound implications on treatment efficacy, patient well-being, and overall outcomes. The analysis encompasses a range of obstacles comprises physiological, psychological, economic, social, and healthcare system factors, highlighting their intricate impact on nutritional intake and patient care. The exploration of nutritional barriers reveals a landscape encompassing challenges such as malnutrition, treatment-related side effects, psychological distress, physical limitations, lack of knowledge, cultural influences, financial constraints, and limited access to specialised nutritional support. These hurdles, if left unaddressed, can lead to adverse consequences including malnutrition, weakened immunity, impaired treatment response, decreased quality of life, and ultimately, poorer prognosis. The intricate interplay between inadequate nutrition and cancer outcomes is underscored, emphasising the pivotal role of proper nutrition in boosting the immune system, supporting treatment effectiveness, and hastening recovery. Strategies to overcome these barriers emerge through multidisciplinary approaches integrating medical and nutritional needs, personalised dietary plans, psychosocial support, and the integration of yoga and wellness practices to foster mindful eating and holistic well-being. This review provides valuable insights into the complexities of nutritional barriers in cancer care and emphasizes the critical need for comprehensive strategies to ensure cancer patients receive the vital nutritional support necessary for optimizing their journey through treatment and recovery.</p> Bavika K. P. Anantha Krishna B. S. Mithesh M. Praveen K. S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 1022 1029 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240300 Diabetes and the retinal changes in the eye: a threat to the sight <p>This article discusses the importance of diabetic retinopathy, an eye disease associated with diabetes, which is a systemic disease. The research question addresses the impact of diabetes on the retina of the eye through infection and clinical features. This approach is designed to improve the relationship between early diagnosis and treatment of disease, including laser surgery, corticosteroid injections, and vitrectomy. This article focuses on chronic diabetic retinopathy and eye examination recommendations in the United States and the United Kingdom. To prevent and manage diabetic retinopathy, it is recommended that diabetic patients have regular eye examinations. The results of this study include the importance of good glycaemic control, injections, photocoagulation, and vitrectomy as treatment options. Intravitreal long-acting steroids may also temporarily improve visual acuity by reducing macular oedema. However, long-term use of the drug may cause side effects and may lead to cataracts, steroid glaucoma, and endophthalmitis. It may cause reasons. A recent study of the disease in India shows that the incidence of high blood sugar and its effects on the eye is mainly diabetic retinopathy, including cataracts, neovascular glaucoma and even retinal detachment, which are very dangerous for eye health. Therefore, it is important to inform patients about this disease and perform timely screening because patients need to be informed carefully.</p> Namrata Srivastava Mahesh Chandra Nitesh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 1030 1037 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240301 Effect of post-implantation radiation therapy on dental implant osseointegration in oral cancer patients: a systematic review of literature <p>Dental implant placement for functional rehabilitation after oral cancer surgery could be done either before or after radiation therapy (RT). In both of the above scenarios, radiation exposure could affect implant osseointegration and survival. The present review aimed to evaluate the effect of post-implantation RT on osseointegration of dental implants placed in patients treated for oral cancer. A literature search was conducted to identify studies published in English between 2001 and November 2023. Articles reporting about the success of dental implant osseointegration after post-implantation radiotherapy were selected. Data about overall success of osseointegration and with respect to the anatomic site (maxilla, mandible or grafted bone), radiation dose and time-interval between implant placement and radiation exposure were collected and analyzed. Out of 189 articles identified through literature search, 12 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. In 403 patients, 1333 dental implants were placed prior to RT, out of which 1223 successfully osseointegrated (91.75%). The implant osseointegration rates in maxilla, mandible and grafted bone were 92.06% (255/277), 95.14% (313/329) and 80% (60/75), respectively. There was no relationship between radiation dose or time-interval and success of implant osseointegration. Based on the present review, it may be concluded that dental implants placed at least 1.5-3 months prior to RT, would successfully osseointegrate without major complications. The native maxilla and mandible are a favored choice for implant placement before radiotherapy, than grafted bone.</p> Sundar Ramalingam Lama Dhafer Al Bahis Rahaf Ali Bin Salamah Rihan Bader Almutairi Heyam Humood AlKhalaf Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 11 2 942 948 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240020 Establishing and streamlining the communication and coordination through emergency control room in a tertiary care hospital by upgrading the available resources in the pandemic of COVID-19 <p>As the COVID-19 pandemic started, a tertiary care hospital of central Gujarat faced problems in developing communication and coordination between the doctors as there was a lack of emergency control room (ECR) set up. This article documents the process of establishing ECR using locally available resources. The department of Community Medicine (CM) was made in-charge of ECR. All information technology (IT) equipment were supplied by hospital administration as per the demand. Various challenges experienced by the staff of CM were discussed with the authorities and specialists from respective departments and quick intermediate solutions were adopted. In July-2020, ECR was established with IT support which accelerated the sharing of laboratory findings and patient details to the treating physician. Dedicated smart phones were assigned to each floor providing real time patient updates through Whatsapp groups and video calling feature was used to establish effective communication between patients and relatives. The hospital also collaborated with a local NGO that provided manpower to address queries at ECR. This study concludes that focusing on utilising local resources and manpower and training the available personnel to handle the problems in the best possible ways made the system work properly at the time of crisis.</p> Latika T. Chugh Bansari L. Chawada Sangita V. Patel Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 949 954 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240290 Impact of chemotherapy on expiratory muscle strength in stage 1 head and neck cancer patients <p>Head and neck cancer (HNC), in current days, is one of the fatal diseases. Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments for cancer. Chemotherapy has an adverse impact on the respiratory parameters of patients. In these patients, expiratory force-generating capacity is impaired, which usually helps the patients cough effectively for airway clearance. Thus, as an impact of chemotherapy, airway clearance is affected in HNC patients. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy expiratory muscle strength in stage 1 head and neck cancer patients. We conducted an observational study including 15 patients with stage 1 HNC in the department of oncology in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The outcome measure included assessment of the expiratory muscle strength by measuring maximum expiratory pressure. In our study, we found a result showing a significant decline of 53.43% in maximum expiratory pressure values after 3-6 months of required chemotherapy sessions. The results of the current study suggest that chemotherapy has a deleterious impact on the expiratory muscle strength in stage 1 HNC patients after long-term exposure.</p> Yashshree J. Shindikar Abhijit D. Diwate Arijit K. Das Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 955 958 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240291 A mother's deficiency, a baby's challenge: vitamin B12 deficiency-related seizures and pancytopenia in an infant <p>Anemia is prevalent in pediatric age and it stems from diverse factors. While iron deficiency is a common cause above six months of age, other nutritional deficits contribute to the disease burden. During pregnancy, anemia due to nutritional deficits is associated with adverse outcomes for the newborn. Precise diagnosis of dietary deficits in the pediatric population is vital to avert negative health consequences. We describe the case of a six-month-old exclusively breastfed infant with a mother having unspecified anemia under folic acid supplementation. The infant presented with neurological symptoms, including paroxysmal events and developmental regression. Laboratory analysis revealed pancytopenia and severe vitamin B12 deficiency. The patient’s mother's serum level of vitamin B12 was also low and ant parietal cell antibodies were positive, suggesting maternal autoimmune gastritis. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin led to clinical and analytical improvement. Maternal deficiency is the major cause of cobalamin deficiency in infants. It is paramount to raise awareness to this issue to prevent its avoidable repercussions.</p> Ana Rebelo Margarida Serôdio Francisco Branco Caetano Andreia Gomes Pereira Raquel Maia Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 11 2 959 962 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240011 Uncommon Salmonella osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adult: a rare case report <p><em>Salmonella </em>osteomyelitis (OM) is more common in individuals with hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. The cardinal symptoms of OM such as fever, pain, and soft tissue swelling do not point towards a specific etiological agent. Since a preceding history of gastrointestinal infections is usually absent it causes a diagnostic challenge for <em>Salmonella </em>OM which is often overlooked causing a delay in diagnosis. In cases of fluoroquinolone resistance, third generation cephalosporins become the drug of choice. Due to absence of standardized guidelines, management is usually on a case-to-case basis. Previous studies have been focused mostly on children. Here, we present a rare case of <em>Salmonella typhi </em>OM in a 25-year male without any common predisposing factors.</p> Drishti Sagar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 963 966 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240292 Scabies treated with individualised homoeopathic medicine - a case study <p>The microscopic mite <em>Sarcoptes scabiei</em> is the source of the contagious skin condition known as scabies. The mites cause severe itching by burrowing into the skin's outermost layer, where they deposit their eggs and cause an allergic reaction. Red, elevated rashes and tiny, thread-like burrow lines are typical signs. Scabies is contagious through close personal contact and is frequently linked to living in cramped quarters. To eradicate the mites and their eggs, treatment usually entails applying topical treatments and thoroughly cleaning one's living area and personal possessions to avoid reinfestation. To effectively manage and limit the spread of scabies, early detection and immediate management are essential. By targeting the patient's general health and immune system, homeopathy provides a comprehensive approach to treating scabies with the goal of symptom relief and long-term wellbeing. Homoeopathy treats the person as a whole. Some of the well proven homoeopathic remedies which work wonders against scabies are Sulphur, Merc sol, Kali sulphuricum, Causticum, Psorinum, and Arscenicum album.</p> T. Surekha Y. Lavanya Sneha L. Neeraja Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 11 2 967 970 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240293