International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health <p>The <strong>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH)</strong> is an open access, international, monthly, peer-reviewed journal publishes articles of authors from India and abroad with special emphasis on original research findings that are relevant for developing country perspectives including India.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research articles, focusing on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology and social medicine, invited annotations and comments, invited papers on recent advances, clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and management review article, short communication/brief reports, letters to the editor, case reports, etc. The journal covers population based studies, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation, systematic review, meta-analysis, clinic-social studies etc., related to any domain and discipline of public health, especially relevant to national priorities, including ethical and social issues. Articles aligned with national health issues and policy implications are preferred. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2394-6032</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2394-6040</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Community Med Public Health.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a title="PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101711371, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalId=31416" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalID=32537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScopeMed</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23946032&amp;uid=r5af96" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> en-US (Editor) (Editor) Thu, 30 May 2024 14:11:20 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of nutrition education programs on complementary feeding: a comparative study among Nigerian men and women <p><strong>Background:</strong> The study assessed how nutrition education programs impact complementary feeding behaviours, with a particular emphasis on understanding the experiences of both men and women in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study design employed a mixed-methods approach, including a qualitative and quantitative approach, and included 1167 women and 571 men in various places in the north, south, west, and eastern parts of Nigeria. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire about supplemental feeding that was given by interviewers was used to gather the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study reveals that most mothers are between the ages of 20 and 40, with a majority of them having completed primary and secondary school. The majority of respondents belong to the medium class, with 42.7% starting their children on cereal too soon at six months. 82.4% supplement their infant's diet with fortified pap, primarily made with infant formula. The majority of mothers use various feeding methods, with 57.1 percent using cups, plates, and spoons, 8.1% using hand feeding, and 8.4% using bottle feeding. Only 5.7% clean their hands after feeding and sanitize their food utensils. The study also shows that traditional gender norms, where men are primarily breadwinners, are being challenged by more progressive views, with 21.2% believing in equal sharing of caregiving responsibilities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study reveals that Nigeria's supplemental feeding practices are insufficient because of early intake, inadequate follow-up, the prevalence of costly commercial formula and local cereal gruels for meals, and a shift toward shared caregiving responsibilities.</p> Halimat O. Oyeneye Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 From knowledge to action: understanding Ghanaian physicians responses to COVID-19 pandemic threats <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study, conducted with meticulous care, aimed to determine the knowledge, perception, and preparedness of Ghanaian physicians towards a pandemic or another wave of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study, conducted between May and July 2023, used a robust methodology and included a comprehensive questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed through Facebook, WhatsApp, and other social media links, ensuring a broad reach and diverse participation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 777 physicians responded, and participation was from all 16 regions of Ghana. Of these, 372 (47.9%) were males, while 405 were females (52.1%). The survey, consisting of 55 questions about COVID-19 knowledge, 29 questions about perception, and 21 questions about preparedness, was designed to capture a comprehensive understanding. The study’s inclusion criteria were limited to physicians who had direct contact with patients in medical facility settings. The findings revealed that Ghanaian physicians ranked high regarding their knowledge of COVID-19. However, their readiness to face another pandemic challenge was observed at 47% in progress. In comparison, 43% of physicians responded as done, with another 10% not being unaware of the current situation about preparedness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In conclusion, this study sheds light on the nuanced responses of Ghanaian physicians to the COVID-19 pandemic threats, emphasizing the critical role of knowledge in shaping their actions. Through a qualitative exploration, we discerned a spectrum of reactions ranging from proactive measures to adaptive strategies in navigating the uncertainties of the crisis. Ghana needs a blueprint for pandemic management.</p> Victor C. Wutor, Benoit B. N’guessan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of human immuno-deficiency virus pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and retention among sex workers in Nakuru town Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and retention among sex workers in Nakuru town, Kenya. The theory of planned behavior and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction model served as the study's theoretical framework.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional research design was adopted for this study. The study targeted all the sex workers in Nakuru town who were 18 years old and above. A random sampling technique was used to get the hotspots where the sex workers were to be found. Snow balling sampling technique was then adopted to identify and recruit the study participants. Using primary sources. The quantitative data was obtained from the respondents using a questionnaire. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (regression analysis). The findings presented in table and graphical formats.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis using multiple linear regression indicated that there was a collective significant effect between the awareness, health system factors, socio economic individual factors and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among sex workers. A further analysis showed that, put together, the four predictor variables explained 35.7% of variation on PrEP uptake and retention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that while use and none use PrEP can be explained by the four factors evaluated in this study, there are a lot of other factors that influence utilization of PrEP.</p> Martha N. Kahura, Joseph M. Mutitu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Self-management practices among children and adolescents presenting with type 1 diabetes attending selected health facilities in Nairobi city county <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes is a high prevalence non-communicable disease (NCD), with its highest burden in low- and middle-income countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimates that the global prevalence of diabetes is approximately 537 million people. By 2030, this figure is expected to rise to nearly 643 million, and by 2045, it is projected to reach 783 million. In sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 24 million adults have diabetes, with a regional prevalence of 4.5%. Children with diabetes in this region often remain undiagnosed, and even if diagnosed, many lack access to essential services and resources such as insulin, syringes, and monitoring equipment, leading to avoidable deaths.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted between September 2021 and September 2022 among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes who attended selected facilities in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews with the participants. The data was cleaned and then exported to SPSS V.23 for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study investigated the demographic and socio-economic profiles of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the study area, their level of knowledge regarding self-management practices, the self-management practices carried out by these respondents and explored the relationship between demographic and socio-economic factors, knowledge levels, and self-management practices among children and adolescents with T1D.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study findings will be of great importance for health professionals and policymakers in designing appropriate interventions to improve self-management practices among children with T1D.</p> Ann W. Mugo, Alloys S. S. Orago, Albert G. Gachau Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity in second cycle schools in Ghana <p><strong>Background:</strong> Overweight and obesity have become pressing global public health concerns, with their prevalence steadily increasing in many countries, including Ghana. The burden of these conditions is not limited to adults. Second-cycle schools play a crucial role in shaping the physical and mental well-being of students, making it imperative to understand the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity in this specific demographic. This study, therefore, seeks to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the predicting factors in students in second-cycle schools in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected second-cycle schools in the Eastern, Ashanti, and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana from January 31<sup>st</sup>, 2019 to December 20<sup>th</sup>, 2021. The sample was determined using an assumed minimum sample of 206 people with an overweight or obesity prevalence of 15%. Two schools were picked by lottery from the list of the three districts that were selected from each region. This investigation comprised six (6) second-cycle institutions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, 1086 students participated in this study. 43.74% and 56.26% females. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 28.17%. Overweight (24.95%) and obesity (3.1%). 16.20% (female) and 11.97% (male). BMI (female-gender) and type of food (cooked at home) are predictive factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Predictive factors included BMI, gender (female), and homemade foods. Educating students and the general public on the risks of obesity and helping curb the misconception of overweight and obesity as a sign of ‘good living’ and beauty within Ghanaian communities is recommended.</p> Cecilia Amponsem-Boateng, Timothy Bonney Oppong, Ninon P. Amertil, Jonathan Boakye-Yiadom, Doris Grace Kpongboe Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-cultural factors influencing utilization of contraceptives among girls aged 15 to 19 years in Kuria West Subcounty, Migori County <p><strong>Background:</strong> Insufficient contraceptive use among 15–25-year-olds leads to unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, disabilities, infant mortality, and high teen pregnancy rates, with Kenya's high rate of teen pregnancies despite efforts.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional study design was used and 361 teenage girls between 15-19 years in the selected electoral wards at Kuria West Sub County in Migori County, Kenya. Data was collected using administered structured questionnaire, and key informant interview. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 26.0 and involved univariate and bivariate analysis. Bivariate analysis was done through logistic regression was used to test the significance of the association between the dependent and independent variables (p&lt;0.05). Qualitative data was analyzed by thematic content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> More than two third 249 (69.0%) of respondents had utilized contraceptives such as condoms (33.3%), injection (25.3%), implants (22.9%), and pills (15.7%). Religious affiliation (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=5.576, df=1, p=0.018) was significantly associated with utilization of the contraceptives. Additionally, religion supports the use of contraceptives (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=0.061, df=1, p=0.804), culture prohibits the use of contraceptives (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=1.496, df=2, p=0.473), discuss contraceptive methods with family (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=1.423, df=2, p=0.491), and difficult to engage in sexual discussions with my parents/guardian (ꭓ<sup>2</sup>=2.707, df=2, p=0.258) had no statistical relationship with utilization of the contraceptives.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Central and county government, stakeholders and NGOs should organize health education targeting parents, community and the society which should include, schedules and benefits/importance of utilization of FP services to counter the cultural beliefs.</p> Jackline Nyaberi, Dominic Mogere, Nancy B. Mwita Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A case study on the relationships between the dietary patterns and the nutritional status of school children in Galkadapathana village in Sri Lanka <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nutritional status is an important indicator in measuring the quality of life of children. Galkadapthana is a rural agricultural village in the Nuwara Eliya district, Sri Lanka. Villagers confront difficulties regarding their nutritional status due to low income, inadequate education and poor infrastructure facilities. This study was undertaken to identify the relationships between the nutritional status of school children in Galakadapathana village and their dietary patterns.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out using a deductive approach. A total of 85 households with 137 school children aged 6-18 years were randomly selected. Data was collected using structured surveys and conducting face-to-face interviews. The nutritional status of children was assessed through anthropometric measurements.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A severely stunted condition was observed in 5.8% of children, while 7.3% represent severely underweight conditions according to the WHO growth references, 2007. The maximum number of 6 was scored in the Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) by 24.8% of the population. The maximum number of 7 in the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was scored by 21.2% of the population. There was no significant (P&gt;0.05) relationship between the BMI-for-age status and the aggregate level of education of the breadwinner, birthweight of the child, IDDS, and HDDS. However, the amount of starchy food intake significantly (P&lt;0.05) impacted the BMI-for-age status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The amount of starchy food intake showed a significant impact on the prevalence of wasting (P&lt;0.05), but not the aggregate level of education of the breadwinner, birthweight of the child and dietary diversity.</p> Jayasekara M. C. K. B. Siriwardhane, Egodage R. J. Samarakoon, Anuradha Jayaweera Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Accessibility of reproductive health services among women living in the informal settlements of Mathare slums, Nairobi City County, Kenya <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study sought to determine the health facility-related factors and social factors associated with the accessibility of reproductive health services (RHS) among women living in the informal settlements of Mathare slums, Nairobi City County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study focused on Nairobi County, Kenya, specifically targeting Mathare slums, known for poor reproductive health (PRH) indicators among women. Three hundred women were randomly recruited from four villages (Mathare 3B, Mathare 4A, Kosovo, and Mathare village 2). </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The majority of respondents were aged 18-29 years (48.7%), had primary education (61.7%), were married (58.7%), and unemployed (69.3%). Significant associations were observed between accessibility and the woman's age (χ<sup>2</sup>=83.013, df=1, p&lt;0.001), education level (p&lt;0.001), marital status (p&lt;0.001), and employment status (χp&lt;0.001). Significant health facility barriers to accessibility encompassed long distances to health facilities (p&lt;0.001), transportation cost constraints (p&lt;0.001), difficult terrain (p&lt;0.001), cost of services (p&lt;0.001), services provided by health facilities (p&lt;0.001), and availability of required medications (p&lt;0.001). Discouragement by friends or family (p&lt;0.001), the perceived influence of age on RHS accessibility (p&lt;0.001), the perceived influence of education level on RHS choices (p=0.014), and the perceived role of a spouse in influencing RHS (p=0.002) were all significant social factors associated with accessibility to RHS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Health facilities and social factors presented complex challenges, including geographical barriers, transportation costs, and medication availability, while spouse involvement, education's influence, and familial discussions positively impacted accessibility.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Janet C. Rotich, Justus O. Osero, Elphas Gitonga Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular xenomonitoring for the assessment of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Jaffna and Trincomalee districts in Sri Lanka <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lymphatic filariasis also known as elephantiasis is a neglected tropical disease causes by filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through infected female mosquito bite. The disease was formerly endemic in Sri Lanka and has been declared eliminated as a public health problem in 2016. However, LF transmission was not studied in detail in Jaffna and Trincomalee districts due to the long political unrest. The present study, LF transmission in mosquito was assessed by Molecular Xenomonitoring.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A prior investigation was carried out to detect anti-filarial IgG4 in urine with ELISA and circulating filarial antigen in capillary blood with Filariasis strip tests. Subjects become positive in both testes were included their house location for mosquito collection to conduct MX. Surrounding residents were selected as target for mosquito collection with CDC gravid trap. Collected mosquitoes were dried and sorted in 827 pools (≤20 mosquitoes/pool). DNA was extracted and purified from all the pools and examined by Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect filarial DNA.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total, 16,631 female <em>C. quinquefasciatus</em> mosquitoes were collected by CDC gravid traps and tested with PCR. All pools from Jaffna and Trincomalee districts were negative for <em>W. bancrofti</em> infection. But, four pools (0.67%) from Trincomalee district were positive for <em>B. malayi</em> infection which indicated possible resurgence of brugian filariasis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The result suggested no evidence of infection of bancroftian filarisis. However, identification of <em>B. malayi</em> filarial DNA in post elimination phase is concerning and warrant further investigation.</p> Mohammad Azizur Rahman Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Acceptability of mental health toolbox talk in primary health care service; a case study of Oshodi/ Isolo local government area, Lagos state, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mental health services at the primary healthcare level remain at their lowest ebb in most developing countries. Mental health toolbox talk is a way to solve mental health needs in the community. This study aimed at assessing the acceptability of mental health toolbox talk in primary health care (PHC), in Oshodi/Isolo, local government area (LGA).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a descriptive cross-section study conducted among 119 PHC staff. A multistage sampling technique was used to select participants for the study. Data were collected and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 26 and the EPI Info application.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Findings revealed that the majority 79% of respondents were females and were within the age range of 40-60 years of age. Also, 76% of PHC staff showed poor knowledge of mental management, while 94% of the respondents accepted the integration of mental health toolbox talk into PHC. Findings revealed that professions (χ<sup>2</sup>=12.998, p&lt;0.05) had a significant association with the respondents’ knowledge about mental health. However, the analysis of variance shows there is a statistically insignificant difference in knowledge between the professional groups of PHC staff on the provision of mental health services in the PHC facilities, (f<em>=</em>0.616; p=0.688) (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Lack of knowledge on mental health was observed to mitigate PHC staff in the management of mental health disorders, and the need for training on mental health toolbox talk was determined.</p> Usen J. Silas, Doris A. Dotimi, Rukayat Oladunni Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of community health volunteers in identification of hypertension cases in Kajiado county, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension, despite being preventable and manageable contributes greatly to global morbidity and mortality. Community health volunteers (CHVs) provide various health services, however their utilization in hypertension identification has neither been explored nor emphasized. We aimed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics of CHVs and their knowledge level in hypertension identification in Kajiado county, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study with a mixed- methods approach. Using multi-stage sampling, we recruited 226 CHVs who were active in the past 6 months and gave informed consent. Researcher administered questionnaires and key informant interviews were used for data collection. Data analysis was conducted using the statistical package of social science version 23 and content thematic analysis for quantitative and qualitative data respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The likelihood of screening was higher among the middle age (41-50 years) (p=0.031). CHVs had poor knowledge (93.4%) and only 34.1% had attended a hypertension specific training. A strong statistical difference was found between ever-received hypertension training and knowledge level (p=0.000, 95% CI). The likelihood of screening was higher among those trained (p=0.005, 95% CI and those with knowledge of signs and symptoms (p&lt;0.001, 95% CI). The odds of hypertension identification were 3.74 times higher among CHVs who knew hypertension signs and symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Overall, CHVs had poor hypertension knowledge. The likelihood of hypertension identification was higher in CHVs with good knowledge of hypertension. Further studies should be conducted to assess the impact of CHVs utilization in hypertension on health outcomes.</p> Jessicar W. Claris, John P. Oyore, Gordon Ogweno Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization status of Safe Motherhood Program: a study from Jumla district, Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Safe Motherhood Program is a national priority programme that aims to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity through demand and supply side incentives and free delivery care. The study investigates Safe Motherhood Program’s utilization, changes post-implementation, and associated factors in Jumla district to enhance maternal health care access and reduce preventable maternal deaths.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross sectional study using quantitative approach was conducted where the women of reproductive age group having at least one child of 3-15 months of age were interviewed using the semi structured interview schedule (n=228). Chi square test was used to show the association with independent and depended variables. All the test was carried out at the statistically significant of p value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed significant associations between utilization of maternal health care services and various factors: respondent's education level (p=0.034, OR=1.834, CI=1.043-3.223), husband's education level (p=0.007, OR=2.300, CI=1.252-4.228), respondent's employment status (p=0.003, OR=7.155, CI=1.650-31.029), husband's employment status (p=0.001, OR=2.778, CI=1.526-5.055), monthly income (OR=5.556, CI=2.005-15.393), and involvement in social groups (p=0.009, OR=2.312, CI=1.217-4.390).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite strong awareness of delivery incentives, the program success was restricted by poor knowledge of checkup incentives. The study identified the sociodemographic factors influencing the appropriate use of Jumla’s Safe Motherhood Program scheme. Pregnancy was highly registered, however less than two thirds of women had the necessary number of examinations performed. Institutional deliveries increased but there was disparity during the service delivery.</p> Shubhadra Shahi, Dinesh Raj Neupane, Kamal Ranabhat, Subash Wagle, Manish Rajbanshi, Anita Adhikari, Sandhya Niroula, Hari Prasad Kafle Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hematological profiles of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Western Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) mortality remains high despite current availability of effective anti-TB drugs. This could be due to pathophysiological derangements that are not fully understood and managed during anti-TB therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hematological changes in newly diagnosed PTB patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 55 newly diagnosed PTB patients and 55 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional non-randomized study. Complete hematological profiles were determined using an automatic analyzer. Peripheral blood films were used to evaluate cellular morphology. Data was analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests (SPSS version 29.0). <strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Males constituted 80% (44) of the newly diagnosed PTB patients and 81.8% of the blood donor controls. Compared with the control group, the PTB patients group exhibited significantly lower median red blood cell (RBC) count (4.79×10<sup>6 </sup>µl vs 5.2×10<sup>6 </sup>µl, p<em>=</em>0.001), hemoglobin levels (12.8 g/dl vs 14.3 g/dl, p=0.0001), hematocrit (37.9% vs 42.05%, p<em>=</em>0.0001), mean platelet volume (8.9 fl vs 10.5 fl, p<em>=</em>0.0001) and platelet distribution width (10.4 fl vs 13.0 fl, p<em>=</em>0.0001). The median platelet count for the PTB group was significantly higher relative to controls (314.0×10<sup>3</sup>/µl vs 237.0×10<sup>3</sup>/µl, p<em>=</em>0.0001). Similarly, the PTB group had a significantly higher PCT% compared to controls (0.27% vs 0.25%, p<em>=</em>0.002). Morphological analysis of peripheral blood films revealed normocytic normochromic anemia and microcytic hypochromic anemia in 54.5% (n=30) and 34.6% (n=19) of PTB patients, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Newly diagnosed PTB patients in Western Kenya present with leukocytosis, elevated platelet count and anemia, suggesting the need for appropriate management and routine monitoring of hematological profiles.</p> Edwin Mwilitsa, Sammy Kimoloi, Evans Raballah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of data-driven decision-making among health providers: a case of Mombasa county, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Healthcare professionals understand how important it is to turn health data into information for informed decision-making. However, a lack of trustworthy and up-to-date health information is caused by inadequate investment in infrastructure for data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use. The aim of the study was to determine data-driven decision-making among health providers, a case of Mombasa County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study employed an analytical cross-sectional study design where a stratified random sampling approach was utilized to recruit respondents into the study. The Yamane formula of sample size calculation was used to recruit 168 study partakers for this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The outcomes indicated that quality data-driven decision-making exhibited a substantial correlation with technical factors (r=0.642, p value=0.000). Furthermore, the findings highlighted a significant correlation between quality data-driven decision-making and behavioral factors (r=0.821, p value=0.000). Additionally, the study's results revealed a marked correlation between quality data-propelled decision-making alongside organizational factors (r=0.819, p value=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The likelihood ratio tests demonstrated that both technical and organizational factors significantly predicted data-driven decision-making among health providers, whereas behavioral factors did not have a statistically significant impact. There is a need to provide training for health workers at the county level to enhance data utilization skills, ensure thorough data verification before submission, and promote the use of health information in decision-making.</p> Sally Wangige Muhula, Joseph Juma Nyamai, Alfred Owino Odongo, Peterson Kariuki Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of patients coming to the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation for locomotor disability certification: a 5-years observational study <p><strong>Background:</strong><strong> </strong>The persons with locomotor disability are eligible for various social welfare benefits from the Government under ‘The persons with disabilities (Equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) Act, 1995’ along with other causes of disabilities like blindness, hearing impairment etc. and recent enactment of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016. Understanding the utilization of services is crucial in enhancing assistance for individuals with certifiable disabilities. This study aimed to observe the clinico-demographic profile of patients coming to outpatient Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitations for locomotor disabilities certification and 5 years’ trend in the number of patients getting disability certificate.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong><strong> </strong>This retrospective study was based on the data taken at time of disability certification in a multispecialty tertiary care government medical college in Northern India. All persons with locomotor disability who were issued disability certificate between 2014 and 2018 were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 857 patients were issued disability certificates during the study period of 2014 to 2018. Among the 744 adult patients, only 149 (20%) were female. Most of them were urban residents. In locomotor disability, post-polio residual paralysis was the most common diagnosis encountered, followed by amputations and cerebral palsy. Most of the applicants were having a disability of 40-50%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Awareness has to be generated about the disability benefits and disability certification. Utilisation of services by females should be encouraged. Robust data and literature need to be built up for prevention and management of locomotor disability.</p> Sucheta Saha, Sandeep K. Gupt, Suprakash Mandal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Tue, 07 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sleep quality and its correlates among undergraduate students of a medical school in North Karnataka, India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Poor sleep quality is a global health concern and is fast becoming one of the silent epidemics. Sleep quality among medical students is of particular interest as they are considered high risk groups for developing sleep related issues because of their demanding schedules. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of poor sleep and its correlates among undergraduate medical students of a medical school in Belgaum, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 undergraduate medical students using a self-administered questionnaire. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). The potential determinants of quality of sleep were identified using logistic regression. A p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant and adjusted odds ratio with 95%CI was used to present the strength of association.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of poor sleep quality among medical students was 69.3%. Factors like gender, female students (AOR=2.381, 95%CI=1.359-4.172), being overweight or obese (AOR=2.499, 95%CI=1.297-4.817) were associated with poor sleep quality. Students with good sleep hygiene (AOR=0.415, 95%CI=0.231-0.745) and who did not use technology during bedtime (AOR=0.38, 95%CI=0.168-0.878) were less likely of having poor sleep quality at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Prevalence of poor sleep quality among substantial proportion of medical students in the current study is alarming. The already existing personal and professional development programme committee can conduct routine screening to assess sleep quality among students and focus on programmes to improve their sleep hygiene.</p> Suhasini R. Kanyadi, Shivalingappa B. Javali, Nabeel Ahmed Gadi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Sat, 04 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of human rabies following bite or exposure to laboratory confirmed rabid animals <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rabies is one of the important endemic fatal zoonotic viral disease afflicting humans and animals in Punjab, India. The present study investigated the incidence of rabies in humans bitten/exposed to laboratory confirmed rabid animals, as well as incidence after use of vaccine or rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and clinico-epidemiological studies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A study was conducted during August 2021 to September 2022 on forty (40) rabies suspected animals presented to diagnose rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) at rabies diagnostic laboratory (RDL), Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Punjab, India. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for obtaining information about exposure/bite of humans by rabid animals, death of humans, demographic and epidemiological information of victims.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of total forty (40) suspected rabies cases, 30(75%) were found positive for rabies by dFAT. Laboratory confirmed rabies (LCR) incidence was 60.80% and 21.73% in stray and pet dogs, respectively. All pet dogs were vaccinated but no stray dog was vaccinated. The LCR incidence in buffaloes and cattle was 77.77% and 100%, respectively. Further in humans exposed to rabid animals (59), males were at more risk than females. The human rabies incidence was 3.38% (2/59). Highest incidence of dog bites in adult males on lower limb was observed from urban stray dogs (60.80%) followed by children. Post exposure vaccination was given to 98.3% humans exposed to rabid animals. Human’s rabies in two cases was due to no vaccination or RIG.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Vaccination is an important step in controlling rabies in India. There is a need for integrated and comprehensive management of street dogs and bite management.</p> <p> </p> Kanwarpreet S. Sandhu, Pahul K. Bawa, Bhupinder S. Sandhu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Physical activity levels and junk food intake among female undergraduate students in Mandya: a cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Physical activity (PA) is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. It has been proven that regular physical activity helps control and prevent noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. This study aimed to describe the levels of physical activity among female undergraduate students in Mandya and to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding junk food habits.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was done in Government women’s degree college, Mandya district, South Karnataka between November 2023 to December 2023 among female undergraduate students in the institute. Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) has been used to describe their physical activity levels. Descriptive statistics like frequency, proportion, mean and standard deviation has been used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study was conducted among 170 students. Based on the MET values it is found that majority of them had moderate level of PA 81 (47.6%), while 39(22.9%) had high levels and 50 (29.4%) had low PA levels. Of 170 participants, 43 (25%) had junk food intake once a week, 46 (27%) had twice a week, 81 (48%) had thrice or more per week. The association between PA level and junk food was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings of this study help us in understanding the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular physical activity practice.</p> Monisha K., Poornima S., Vinay M. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysing patterns of blood component transfusions over a five-year period at Sawai Man Singh Medical College Jaipur: a cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Blood transfusion is a crucial intervention that saves lives and enhances health outcomes. Significant proportion of patients in need of transfusions face challenges accessing to safe blood. Annual collection of approximately 118.5 million units of donated blood worldwide, remains a shortfall in meeting transfusion needs. This study aimed to determine variations in blood requirements annually, seasonally, across different blood groups, components, and assess utilization of Lardly Suraksha Yojana scheme, which is for under 14 girls.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective, annual record-based study was conducted at SMS Medical College, Jaipur, utilizing data on blood bag distributions from financial years 2018 to 2022. Data were compiled and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Ethical clearance was obtained from Research Review Board and Ethics Committee of institute before commencing study, ensuring compliance with ethical standards and protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Analysis of yearly data revealed significant seasonal variations, with notable increase in blood requirements during monsoon season compared to winter. Among blood groups, requirement trend showed an increase in B+ and O+ groups over the past five years, while AB- group exhibited lowest demand. Red Packed Cell SAGM's total requirement demonstrated a consistent annual increase. Moreover, there was an upward trend observed in utilization of blood under Ladali Rakt Seva (LRS).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It’s been concluded that a higher demand for blood during and around monsoon season compared to winter months. Increase in requirement for blood groups B+ and O+. Utilization of blood through LSY scheme witnessed a notable rise, signifying improved accessibility to blood resources.</p> Deepak Muraleedharan, Suresh Kewalramani, Jayadevan R., Pushpendra Bairwa Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological profile of reported road traffic accident cases to emergency medicine department of a teaching medical college in South Karnataka <p><strong>Background:</strong> The study delves into the pressing issue of Road Traffic Accidents, a significant public health concern worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income nations. With the backdrop of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, road safety has gained paramount importance. This research aims to comprehensively examine the multitude of factors influencing RTAs by analyzing data sourced from individual interviews, case summaries, and medico-legal records from a tertiary care hospital's Emergency Medicine Department.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted at JSS hospital, Mysuru. Data from 1525 retrospective cases spanning (2019-2021) and 114 prospective cases from December 2022 to January 2023 were analyzed. A pre-tested, semi-structured proforma gathered socio-demographic variables, etc. Analysis revealed a surge in accidents in 2021 compared to previous years, with a majority occurring between 8 pm to 8 am. Primarily in the 21-30 years age group. Over the three-year period, 72 fatalities were recorded, predominantly among males.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study identified significant associations between RTAs and factors such as gender, vehicle type, mode of transportation, and referring hospital. Lower education levels correlated with increased risk, highlighting the importance of road safety education. Additionally, a striking urban-rural disparity was noted, with majority of RTAs occurring in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Overall, this study underscores the complex nature of RTAs and highlights the importance of addressing multiple risk factors to effectively mitigate road traffic injuries. By understanding these factors, policymakers and healthcare professionals can develop targeted interventions aimed at reducing the burden of RTAs and promoting safer road practices.</p> Rituparna Kundu, Renuka Manjunath, Madhu Srinivasarangan, Manish R. C. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation and comparison of the oral health status of children in government and private schools between 6 to 9 years of age in Sangli city <p><strong>Background:</strong> To evaluate and compare the Oral health status of children in Government and Private schools between 6 TO 9 years of age in Sangli City</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Subjects were selected by Cluster Random Sampling and all students between 6 to 9 years of age from the selected schools were examined. Screening was done on the basis of WHO oral health assessment form for children (2013). Consent was taken from the parents or the concerned authorities prior to the examination of the children. The examination was carried out by one trained and calibrated investigator using a mouth mirror and CPI probe under natural daylight.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1000 children (500 governments and 500 private) were examined in the study. The estimates of non-carious teeth, carious teeth, enamel fluorosis and dental trauma between private and government school children were compared. There was significant difference found in non- carious tooth estimate (p=0.003) and carious teeth estimate (p=0.005). The children in private school had more non carious teeth (mean: 16.45) when compared to government children (mean: 15.89). Similarly, the children in private school had less amount of carious teeth (mean: 3.31) when compared to government children (mean: 3.84). There was no significant difference found with respect to fluorosis (p=0.683) and dental trauma (0.319) in the children of government and private schools.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools.</p> <p> </p> Saakshi Rane, Anand Shigli Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of blood loss in total knee replacement surgery with and without tranexamic acid: a prospective, time framed and observational analytical study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Total knee replacement is one of the common orthopaedic procedures performed worldwide. Blood transfusion is one of the major requirements in TKR procedure due to the amount of blood loss during and after the procedure. We carried out a prospective study to determine the efficacy of tranexamic acid in controlling blood loss during TKR procedure.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Study was conducted at a tertiary care centre, involving cases operated by a single surgeon. Study included 140 patients undergoing primary TKR for advance degenerative disease of knee and were divided into two groups of 70 each, one group that received tranexamic acid before surgery and another group that did not receive tranexamic acid before surgery. Patient with allergy to the drug, hepato/renal dysfunction, DVT, abnormal PT and INR were not included. Tranexamic acid was given intravenously as well as intra-articular.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Pre-operative haemoglobin ranged from 10.2 gm% to 14.4 gm% in the group getting tranexamic acid and from 10% to 14 % in the group not getting tranexamic acid. Post operatively haemoglobin varied from 8.4 gm% to 12.8 gm% in Group 1 and from 7.8 gm% to 12 gm% in Group 2. Difference of mean post-operative Hb (p=0.0045) and PCV (p=0.0024) in two groups was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> We concluded that administration of tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss as well as need of blood transfusion in a patient undergoing total knee replacement.</p> Shaival Mandal, B. D. Chatterjee, Abheek Kar, Saumya Agarwal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Relevance of copper/zinc ratio and its association with redox status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive and persistent inflammatory condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increased oxidative stress amongst others, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary yet comprehensive examination of metal exposure specifically copper and zinc levels and their association with overall oxidative stress in COPD.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Two groups were included in the study. One group with 20 COPD patients and the other group of 20 healthy controls. Plasma samples were obtained from both the groups and serum levels of copper and zinc were studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio obtained from the results was further correlated with oxidative stress index calculated from total oxidant status and total antioxidant status in COPD with respect to controls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The copper levels were significantly higher and the zinc levels lower in the COPD group as compared to the control group. The copper/zinc ratio was higher in COPD as compared to control population. The correlation between Cu/Zn ratio and oxidative stress index showed a positive correlation with a regression coefficient of 0.7.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study throws light on the trace element imbalance in COPD and how these could induce oxidative stress, contributing to persistent inflammation in COPD. In the clinical perspective, monitoring Cu/Zn ratio in COPD patients may lead to better risk mitigation and thereby better therapeutic management of the disease.</p> Sonu Das, Mathew John, Supriya Adiody Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial hearing abilities among children with bimodal versus unilateral cochlear implant: parents report on spatial hearing questionnaire <p><strong>Background:</strong> Spatial hearing questionnaire (SHQ) is a questionnaire developed and validated for evaluating the spatial hearing abilities for the tasks of localization of sound to complex task of speech perception in noise. SHQ is adapted in Dutch language, and in Persian language. The study aimed to compare the spatial hearing abilities of children using bimodal cochlear implant and unilateral cochlear implant using spatial hearing questionnaire a subjective assessment tool, SHQ.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The participants of the study included parents of 30 cochlear implant using children of age range 5-10 years, among 30 participants, 16 belonged to parents of children using unilateral cochlear implant and 14 were parents of children using bimodal cochlear implants. SHQ consisted of 24 questions distributed under 8 domains and the responses from the parents were collected over telephonic interview and statistically analyzed across domains.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that there was no significant difference observed between both the groups across all the 8 domains, except perception of children’s voice, showed statistical difference between 2 groups. The baseline of spatial skills in children population using unilateral and bimodal cochlear implants was analysed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Across the 8 domains of spatial hearing questionnaire there were no significant statistical difference found between unilateral and bimodal cochlear implanted groups.</p> Ashwin Kumar Natarajsivam, Suresh Thontadarya, Srividya Asuri, Praveena Babu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Dental health status and treatment needs among the adult population of western Indian city: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Oral health is a key indicator for general health, overall well-being and quality of life. This study evaluated the oral hygiene knowledge, practice and its association with oral problems and create awareness about oral health, oral diseases and its treatment to the people in Ahmedabad.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Sample size was estimated to be approximately 260 based on pilot study and by convenience sampling method. Chi-square test using SPSS statistical software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that around 74.22% of participants felt tooth pain, of which female were more expressive of their pain as compared to their male counterpart. Of which a staggering 73.07% participants brushed their teeth only once in a day. It was observed that there was a failure among population to use interdental aids for cleaning and maintaining oral hygiene. Approximately 70% of population visited their dentist not even once in the year.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was observed and hence concluded on the basis of the derived results that there was a lack of appropriate oral health awareness among the local people in Ahmedabad even among the literate.</p> Yash Modi, Tilomi Desai, Srushti Mandanka, Princy Soni, Riddhi Patel Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Celiac disease in children with failure to thrive and our experience in a tertiary care hospital of Kashmir in north India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. Celiac disease is an important cause of failure to thrive in children. In addition to intestinal and extra intestinal clinical features, the diagnosis of CD is based up on histological findings in duodenal or jejunal biopsies, which may present in various forms.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a prospective observational, cohort study, including all children between 2-18 yrs. of age presented with failure to thrive fulfilling criterias of study. The patients with increased levels of IgA anti tTGA were selected for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. The aim of study is to study the prevalence and clinical profile of CD in children with failure to thrive.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 66 cases of failure to thrive/short stature were enrolled, with prevalence of 24.2% of CD. Male: Female ratio was 1:1 in children with CD. Clinical features include weight loss (62.5%), irritability (37.5%), anemia (37.5%), diarrhea (37.5%). On biopsy cases 87.5% cases of failure to thrive had Marsh grading of grade 3 and 12.5% had Marsh grade 2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Failure to thrive patients with diarrhea and anemia should be evaluated upfront for celiac disease.</p> <p> </p> Junaid Mehraj, Mukhtar Ahmad, Mudawar Saleem Beigh, Sheikh Nisar Ahmad, Owais Ahmad Mir, Naseer Yousuf Mir Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A study of the health benefits of the Yoga Prana Vidya healing camp conducted at YPV Ashram in December 2022 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Several YPV Healing Camp programmes in the past have assisted people of all ages in treating and resolving their current health problems and lowering their chance of developing future chronic illnesses, which typically begin early and get worse with age. This paper presents one such camp and its outcomes successfully conducted at the YPV Ashram in December 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An interventional method for evaluating the outcomes of this camp is used. Patients’ data was collected before and after this camp by a team of 6 YPV healers who performed healing services using YPV protocols. The patient sample consisted of 29 adults (20 female and 9 male) from various places in the country who registered their voluntary participation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Measured parameters such as body weight (Wt.), body mass index (BMI), V Fat, waist circumference, blood pressure (both Systolic and diastolic), and O<sub>2 </sub>saturation showed statistically significant improvements for the group. The patients experienced considerable improvements in their conditions such as pain in various parts of the body, and other physiological, psychological, and mental health issues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The key success aspects of the YPV healing and wellness camps are the teamwork, preparation and scheduling, expertise, competence, and dedication of the healers. The Yoga Prana Vidya method, as a supplementary and alternative medicine, has had such an impact on the healthcare system that those who have sought this therapeutic system have experienced it well. More research is recommended on this topic utilizing suitable techniques and samples.</p> Jayachander Reddy Neravetla, Venkata Satyanarayana Nanduri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of behavioral risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Mumbai: a descriptive cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. The behavioral risk factors are mainly responsible for the causation of non-communicable diseases (NCD). Objectives were to know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in Naigoan, BDD Chawl, Mumbai to initiate steps for preventive interventions.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among residents of Naigaon, BDD Chawl, Mumbai, India. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested Performa. The world health organization-stepwise approach was used for chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>About 65% of the respondents use smokeless form of tobacco, while 19% are using smoke form of tobacco. Among tobacco users nearly half have been using tobacco for the past 16 years. Nearly half (48%) of respondents were current alcohol drinkers. All the respondents in the study population consume less than five servings of fruits and vegetables which is less than WHO recommended servings. About 67% of the respondents were involved in the moderate type of activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Study found high prevalence of NCD risk factors in the population. These risk factors have been prevalent since more than decade so, there may be very high burden of NCD soon in the study area. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened for diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at early stage of life.</p> Srilatha K. Paslawar, Shrikant K. Kalaskar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of yoga on pain, lower extremity kinetics, kinematics and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Knee osteoarthritis (OA), is one of the leading cause of disability that causes significant reduction in function and strength with an increase in pain. The present study evaluates effects of Yoga with Physiotherapy exercises on pain, kinetics, kinematics and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A randomized controlled trial was conducted for evaluating the effect of Yoga on pain, lower limb kinetics, kinematics and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis over a period of 6 weeks. A total of 50 participants volunteered for the study. The participants were randomly allocated into Control group (n=25) and Intervention group (n=25). The participants of control group performed conventional exercises. The participants of intervention group performed conventional exercises along with Yoga.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings from present study reported significant improvement in muscle flexibility of Rectus Femoris (p&lt;0.05) and Tensor Fascia Lata (p&lt;0.05) in the interventional group as compared to the control group. There was a significant improvement in knee flexion range of motion(p&lt;0.05) in the interventional group compared to the control group. Lower extremity muscle strength evaluation demonstrated a significant improvement(p&lt;0.05) in muscle strength of hip and knee musculature in the interventional group as compared to the control group. There was a significant reduction in pain scores(p&lt;0.05) for stair climbing in the interventional group as compared to the control group. There was no significant improvement in function pre and post intervention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Findings from present study report yoga practice improves knee flexion range of muscle, muscle strength and flexibility in patients with knee osteoarthritis.</p> Mamta Shetty, Anushka Tambe, Aakanksha Darekar, Rushabh Agrawal, Het Bhalala Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Childhood undernutrition and its determinants: a cross-sectional study among under-five children in a slum of Kolkata, West Bengal, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Undernutrition is an important risk for premature deaths and almost 45% of deaths in the under-five population are linked to undernutrition globally, where low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) bear a major share of it. This study aimed to measure the burden of such undernutrition and its determinants among the under-five children in a slum of Kolkata.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between Oct 2022-February 2023 among 164 children aged between 6-59 months. Participants were selected by probabilistic sampling method; Mothers were interviewed and anthropometry of the children were measured. Prevalence of undernutrition was assessed by the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Logistic regression analysis was done to find out the associates of undernutrition.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Median age of the study participants was 26.5 months, 54.3% of the participants being boy children. Regarding feeding of the child, 26.2% given prelecteal feeding, 17.7% didn’t receive colostrum, 33.5% had delayed initiation of breast feeding, only 57.9% child received exclusive breastfeeding. Of the participants, 11% child delivered by home delivery and 32.9% had low-birth-weights. According to CIAF 68.9% had undernutrition, while underweight, stunting, and wasting were reported as per conventional index 44.5%, 56.7%, and 16.5% respectively. In multivariable logistic analysis undernutrition have significant association with low birth weight and repeated episode of cough and running nose [aOR= 0.99(0.98-0.99). aOR=2.32(1.06-5.09)] respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Considerable proportion of children (two out of three) had undernutrition with CIAF. Preventive measures should include improvement in antenatal care, child feeding counselling and social determinants of health.</p> Dipankar Jana, Bobby Paul, Sandipta Chakraborty, Punyabrata Gun, Lina Bandyopadhyay, Ranjan Das Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of anemia in cases of acute myocardial infarction in a tertiary care hospital in central India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Anemia is a known risk factor for ischemic heart disease and heart failure. It is also associated with increased mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The study aimed to determine the anemia status of AMI patients and educate them on anemia and its impact on health.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was cross-sectional study conducted among 100 AMI patients admitted to ICCU of Hamidia hospital, Bhopal over 2 months. Haemoglobin levels were recorded and patients classified as non-anemic, mildly, moderately or severely anemic based on WHO criteria. Patients' sociodemographic profile and risk factors also collected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 100 patients (mean age 55.6 years), 76% were males. 88% patients had anemia-74% mild, 13% moderate and 1% severe. The 30-45 years age group reported the highest frequency of mild anemia cases (20 out of 31). Absence of anemia was highest among the younger &lt;30 years group (9 out of 31). Anemia was higher in females, Patient with vegetarian diet had comparatively more anemia than the patient consuming mixed diet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>A high prevalence of anemia was found among AMI patients. Counselling can help improve health by increasing awareness of anemia management. Screening AMI patients for anemia and therapeutic interventions were recommended.</p> Aditya Thakur, Kunal Peepre, Budhram Pendro, Jagmohan Singh Dhakar, Tej Pratap Singh, Aryasree Lalu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation and associated factors among antenatal mothers attending OPD in a tertiary care institute in India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anaemia in pregnancy is a serious health issue faced globally by all countries. Noncompliance to iron and folic acid supplement plays a role in the high prevalence of anemia in pregnant women.</p> <p>Objectives: The objectives were to find out the proportion of compliance to iron and folic acid tablets (IFA) among antenatal mothers and to determine factors associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted among 260 antenatal mothers attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Jharkhand from August 2023 to February 2024. Subjects were recruited through consecutive sampling. A pretested, predesigned, semi structured interview schedule was used to collect information. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Chi square was used to find out the association of compliance with independent variables. P value of &lt;0.05 was considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the study participants, majority (55.7%) were above 26 years’ age and 60% stayed in rural area. Overall, 64.2% stayed in joint family. The proportion of compliance to IFA among antenatal mothers was 58.8% (n=153), and the reason for noncompliance (n=107) in the majority was forgetfulness (46.7%) followed by “side effects” (28%). Factors like socio economic status and type of family have shown significant association with this compliance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study highlighted that only around half of the pregnant women are compliant with IFA, and this situation demands for information education and communication activities to generate awareness.</p> Athira B., Priyanka Rai, C. Vasantha Kalyani, Bhavna Verma Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Health care seeking behaviour and its socio-demographic determinants among women in rural area: a community based cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The health care delivery system of a country determines the health seeking behaviour of that country’s population. Women’s health care seeking behaviour is undocumented because women suffer the disease in silence, without seeking appropriate remedy for her illness. Hence the study was planned to assess the health care seeking behaviour and factors associated with it among rural women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in the catchment area of Rural Health Training Centre located in Thane district in January 2024. Sample size of women aged 18 years and above was estimated. Subjects were interviewed after obtaining verbal consent. Data was recorded in pre-designed proforma and was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel. Descriptive and inferential statistics was applied. The statistical level of significance was fixed at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 400 women studied, 63.50% were illiterate. 52.75% visit private practitioners for treatment. 56.50% could make own decision regarding their health while 43.50% need permission from senior family members to visit health care facility. Only 42.50% visit to health care facility at the onset of symptoms. Due to time consuming nature, 35.75% were not using government health care facilities. Also, 22.50% women experienced unfriendly behaviour of the health care staff working there.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> More than half of the women could not seek medical care immediately, two third were not aware of the various government health schemes, emphasizing the need to create awareness about it through grass root level health workers. There is an urgent need to rebuild community trust about public health care facilities.</p> Geetanjali Shankar Joshi, Ravindra Balaram Gurav, Dinesh Ramesh Samel Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of mortality in a tertiary care teaching hospital according to the 11th Revision International classification of disease <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mortality is the oldest known health care indicator and a valuable tool for planning and managing in hospitals. Identifying the causes of mortality in hospital is important to monitor the health of the nations, identifying priorities and burden of disease analysis to attempt to estimate the causes of loss of healthy life. Hence this study was done to know the causes of death as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 11 among patients who died in Hangal Sri Kumareshwar Hospital in the year 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective descriptive study was conducted from 01 January to 31 December 2023 in Hangal Sri Kumareshwar Hospital. All mortality data of the year 2023 in the hospital were included in the study. The content of format included demographic variables of patients on the patient record like age, sex, address, mortality and its causes and classified according to ICD 11. Collected data was analyzed using percentages and Chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 505 deaths in Hangal Sri Kumareshwar Hospital and Research centre in 2023, 305 (60.40%) were males and 200 (39.60%) were females. Majority of deaths (31.48%) occurred between 41 to 60 years age group followed by 31.29% deaths occurring between 61 to 80 years age group. Regarding cause of death according to ICD-11, majority (24.16%) had a circulatory disease followed by 16.24% due to an infectious disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The National Health Program to combat non communicable diseases has been implemented and the 12<sup>th</sup> five-year plan has made specific provision for the management and control of non-communicable diseases.</p> Gowri Shankar, Eshwar B. Kalburgi, Vetri Selvan Tamilarasan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Team based learning: an effective teaching-learning method in undergraduate teaching in community medicine <p><strong>Background:</strong> “Team-based learning (TBL)” is a special approach by using small groups that is student centered, teacher guided Teaching and Learning method. Medical Council of India (MCI) emphasizes small group teaching. With increasing student numbers and decreasing/no change in faculty strength, the need for an effective T-L method for incorporating small group teaching in a large group is essential. So, this study attempts to evaluate the effectiveness and student reaction for TBL.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted among III-year MBBS students attending block posting in the Department of Community Medicine, KIMS and RC. Pre-test and post-test after Team based learning implementation by designated faculties was conducted, and scores were analysed. The feedback of TBL was collected by using a Likert scale from students and also from faculties.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean scores of pre- and post-test were analyzed by Paired T test which was statistically significant (p value &lt;0.05). The student reaction evaluated by 7 items Likert scale questionnaire showed that most of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that TBL enhanced their learning experience and confidence. The faculty feedback about TBL was also positive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> TBL can be effectively implemented in medical colleges for the better results and student reaction.</p> Thirunaaukarasu D., Karthikeyan E., Prasan Norman, Geetha M., Princz Felicia, Tejas J. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A school based cross-sectional study to assess the health problems and health status among school going children at Akhorigola, Rohtas District, Bihar <p><strong>Background:</strong> School-going children constitute one-fifth of the total population. They are the future of the nation's successor generation; therefore, high-performing students are important investments in building the nation's future. This study aimed to identify the health problems among school-going children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The current research was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Akhorigola block of Rohtas, targeting school-going children. A total of 650 participants were selected through a purposive sampling technique and assessed using a pre-structured format. The acquired data was analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) to calculate the results based on objectives and hypotheses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The outcomes of the study showed that among the 360 school-age boy participants, 210 (58.33%) had a normal weight, 100 (27.79%) were underweight, and 50 (13.88%) were overweight. Among the 290 girl participants, 150 (51.82%) had a normal weight, 110 (37.84%) were underweight, and 30 (10.34%) were overweight. The study also revealed that the majority of the 650 participants, 149 (22.92%), had inadequate personal hygiene, 109 (16.76%) had dental caries, 78 (12%) were affected by worm infestation, 55 (8.46%) were anemic, 47 (7.23%) had vitamin-A deficiency, 44 (6.76%) had scalp and hair problems, 38 (5.84%) had ear problems, and 30 (4.61%) had impaired visual acuity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Implementing school health programs can pose several challenges, but these can be effectively tackled through the integration of activities between the health and education departments.</p> Lisy Joseph, Mohammed Umar, Shweta Kumari, Dipu Kumar, Mamta Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A study to evaluate the effectiveness of planned educational programme on knowledge and attitude regarding psychosocial problems of eating disorders among adolescent girls studying in selected P.U Colleges at Vijayapur <p><strong>Background: </strong>Eating problems are prevalent, with girls more likely to develop issues in adolescence. Concerning indicators include weight fluctuations, altered eating patterns, and excessive physical activity. Outpatient treatment is effective for most, but some may require hospitalization or residential programs for stability and care.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This research adopted an evaluative research approach and employed a pre-experimental (one group pre-test post- test design), and a sample of 60 adolescent girls studying in PU College is recruited through simple random sampling technique. The investigation was conducted at selected PU colleges, Vijayapur. Karnataka, among the adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of adolescent girls in PU colleges in Vijayapur regarding eating disorders. Pretest results showed a majority with moderate knowledge and unfavorable attitudes. Following an educational program, significant improvements in knowledge and attitudes were observed. The findings highlight the effectiveness of targeted interventions in enhancing awareness and promoting positive attitudes. H1: Post-test knowledge scores significantly improved compared to pre-test scores (p&lt;0.05). H2: Post-test attitude scores significantly enhanced compared to pre-test scores (p&lt;0.05). H3: No significant associations were found between knowledge and attitude scores and socio-demographic variables among adolescent girls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In summary, targeted interventions can enhance knowledge and attitudes about eating disorders among adolescent girls in PU colleges. Outpatient treatments and education are crucial for addressing these issues, but more research and interventions are needed to promote awareness and positive attitudes.</p> Nelson, Aleyamma Varghese, Shrikant Desai, Rajashekharayya C. K., Lalita Rathod, Hanamanth Bhatangunaki Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of demographic attributes and health profile of schedule caste of 5 villages of Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Demography is the scientific study of human populations. It takes into account the quantitative aspects of their general characteristics. In this paper health profile and different attributes of demography like age, gender, caste, marital status, educational status, temperament and occupation etc of scheduled caste people of 5 villages of Aligarh district were assessed and documented.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A pretested, predesigned questionnaire containing the demographic attributes was filled by researchers by face-to-face examination of the population through scheduled caste sub plan mobile health care OPD’s. Surveys were conducted from 2<sup>nd</sup> June to 25<sup>th </sup>September 2022.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Collected and analyzed data exhibits that there were marked difference with the age groups 0-15, 26-45 and 66-85, gender, caste, with religion of Hindu (90.83%) and Muslim (7.33%), educational status regarding illiterate (59.81) and graduate or above (1.65%), Mizaj, dietary habit and there were no significant differences regarding marital status, occupation and addiction behavior were noticed. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It can be concluded that majority of the scheduled caste population was living in interiors of rural areas with low socio-economic and health status. Most visited gender were females which indicate poor nutrition, lack of immunity and excessive burden on them. Majority of the population belongs to Balghami Mizaj. Most preferred diets were mixed and main occupation of the scheduled caste population was agriculture. This study will make policy makers and health workers derive practical conclusions which will help in the upliftment of the scheduled caste populations. </p> Sada Akhtar, Mohd Mudassir, Abul Faiz, Parvez Khan, Sheereen Afza, Farha Ahmad, N. Zaheer Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 How multimorbidity relates to road traffic accident among older adults and elderly population: insights from longitudinal aging study in India (1st wave) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Multimorbidity and road traffic accidents increase with increasing age. Supplemented with increasing life expectancy at birth, both multimorbidity and RTAs will contribute significantly to the growing disease burden of the country. The objective of the study was to determine the association between multimorbidity and RTAs among older adults (above 45 years) and the elderly (above 60 years) population in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI)-1st wave data (April 2017 to December 2018). Participants having at least two chronic health conditions were described as multimorbidity. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) was taken as the outcome variable. Univariate followed by multivariable logistic regression was conducted between the outcome variable and each explanatory variable.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data extracted consisted of 34704 (51.1%) older adults and 31902 (47.9%) elderly. Multimorbidity was present in 25054 (37.6%) individuals. Among the RTA group, 325 (26.5%) individuals had multimorbidity. The elderly with multimorbidity (at least two) were associated with the RTA with an adjusted odds ratio (CI) of 0.55 (0.45-0.67) and p value of &lt;0.001 in comparison to older adults. Clerical and skilled individuals with multimorbidity were associated with RTA in comparison to unemployed individuals with multimorbidity with an adjusted odds ratio (CI) of 1.40 (1.10-1.79) and p value of 0.007.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The RTA was evident among males aged 45-60 years with multimorbidity. Clerical and skilled individuals with multimorbidity were more prone to RTA. These individuals should be encouraged to take necessary measures to promote healthy living and adhere to them.</p> Pritam Halder, Ashwani Kumar Seth, Shubham Kansal, Saumyarup Pal, Anshul Mamgai Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A cross sectional study on vaccination coverage of COVID-19 in rural slums of field practice area of a medical college in Hyderabad <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19, a global pandemic, first identified in the Hubei province (Wuhan), China in December, 2019 is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Attempts of containing it there failed, causing it to spread to other regions of Asia and eventually around the whole world in 2020. To control the risk of transmission, non-pharmaceutical interventions were taken up by the governments all over the world. Subsequently, vaccines were developed which were administered. Vaccine hesitancy has become a significant barrier in various countries due to expeditious pace of vaccine development. Hence, this study was conducted to estimate the COVID-19 vaccination coverage in rural slums of field practice area of a medical college in Hyderabad.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross sectional study was conducted between January 2023 to March 2023 in field practice area of RHTC of a medical college in Hyderabad. Data was collected from 400 eligible participants, who were selected by simple random sampling, using a predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using SPSS Version 20. Chi square test was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, 60% of the study participants had taken COVID vaccine. Vaccination coverage was high i.e., 65.35% among 18-28 years of age group, 82.2% in females, 62.66% in Muslims, 85.71% in graduates, 80.90% in semi-skilled workers and 77.77% in upper middle socioeconomic class.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The COVID-19 vaccination coverage was low in rural slums. Age, gender, religion, education, occupation and socioeconomic status are important determinants of COVID-19 vaccination.</p> Nadia Mouzzam Hussain, Rajesh Neeluri, Sultan Rizwan Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Trends and patterns of orthognathic surgery in Saudi Arabia: a visualized bibliometric analysis of research output <p>This study conducted a bibliometric analysis of orthognathic surgery research from Saudi Arabia between 1994 and 2024 in the Web of Science database. The goal was to evaluate Saudi Arabia's influence in the field and implications worldwide. Relevant keywords were used without year restrictions to search for articles. Biblioshiny and VOS viewer were used to analyse and visualize the bibliometric data, including total citations, h-index, and number of papers. The results show that Saudi Arabia has significantly increased its orthognathic surgery research production over time, especially in 2021 and 2023. King Saud University and King Abdulaziz University emerged as the leading institutions in number of papers. The most cited work was an expert review on using artificial intelligence for orthodontic diagnosis and planning orthognathic surgeries. This represents meaningful progress in combining technology with orthognathic surgery. Alhammad, Alnofaie, and Al-Sebaei were identified as the most productive individual authors, each authoring around three papers. The bibliographic analysis highlights the need for increased cooperation between Saudi institutions to boost research outputs and advance the application of new technologies in orthognathic surgery. The study serves as a foundation for further developing orthognathic surgery research in Saudi Arabia, which remains one of the few developing nations showing promising potential for growth in this area.</p> <p> </p> Mahmoud Alsulaimani, Hatem Hamadallah, Aseel Aloufi, Fadia Aljuhani, Rahma Alhazmi, Ahmed Alsaeedi, Mahir Mirah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Tue, 14 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of medical staff motivation on the quality of practice in healthcare: a systematic review <p>Health professionals deal with human life and are required to perform many functions simultaneously, including taking care of patients, teaching medical students, and having a variety of administrative responsibilities, in addition to the responsibilities that come with having their own family. Therefore, a lack of motivation among health professionals at any level of this hierarchy can have an effect on their performance, which in turn can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the patients. In this research, a systematic review of primary data from the United Kingdom, Europe, Africa, and Asia was carried out to consolidate the existing evidence about the impact that the motivation of medical staff has on the quality of practice in the healthcare industry. It was found that it is essential to motivate people to increase the total productivity of their work, and a range of financial and non-financial strategies may be used to accomplish this objective. However, to correctly implement the most successful type of motivation, managers or supervisors must assess their workers individually and the workforce. We can conclude that medical staff motivation has a positive impact on the quality of practice in healthcare. However, Healthcare worker motivation is not the result of a simple cause-and-effect relationship but rather a complex interaction of elements, all of which must be addressed within the context of the cultural norms governing each country's healthcare system.</p> Badr A. Albenhasnan, Fatimah Y. Alshaikhsaleh, Hasan A. Almutawah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Rabies death in a prisoner: necessity for medical history documentation <p>Rabies is a zoonotic illness with a high mortality rate that attacks mammals' central nervous systems. It is a viral illness that may be avoided with immunization. Up to 99% of the human rabies transmissions occur in dogs, making them the primary cause of rabies mortality in humans. It is a case-report of rabies death in a 55-years old male, a prisoner from Phulbani Jail (Kandhamal), who was presented to MKCG Medical College and Hospital casualty with with chief complaints of difficulty in breathing and difficulty in drinking water since last night on 17 July 2023, at 11:19 pm. The patient had a history of dog bite exposure four years ago, for which he had not received any post-exposure prophylaxis. The patient was identified as having a likely case of rabies based on his previous history of animal bite and clinical manifestations. Patient was declared dead on 18 July 2023 at 10:30 am. Rabies diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination of brain sample which showed presence of Negri bodies. This case-report focuses on the importance of proper medical history information including any animal bite exposure especially for convicts before admitting in prison so as to avoid later morbidity and its legal consequences. Such kind of incident also shows that there is lack of awareness regarding rabies in community. In this instance, mortality may have been prevented if the patient had finished the anti-rabies vaccine regimen and made it to a higher center in time for immunoglobulin. Increasing rabies vaccination awareness among the general public can help reduce rabies-related deaths.</p> Kalyani Mandal, Durga Madhab Satapathy, Priyatosh Dash, Abhijeet Dash Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spironolactone-induced gynecomastia: a case report <p>The term "gynecomastia" refers to the benign growth of glandular breast tissue in men. In older men, adolescents, and newborns, physiological gynecomastia is common. Although it is self-limited, it can be managed to reduce both physical and emotional discomfort. Chronic conditions (such as cirrhosis, hypogonadism, and renal insufficiency), drug use (including prescription, over-the-counter, and illicit drugs), and tumors are rare causes of nonphysiologic gynecomastia. Exogenous estrogens, antiandrogens, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, spironolactone, and cimetidine are the active ingredients that are known to cause gynecomastia the most frequently. A patient's medical history is crucial in diagnosing drug-induced gynecomastia. Treating the underlying disease and stopping contributing medications are the cornerstones of treatment. In certain cases, gynecomastia can be treated with surgery and medications such as estrogen receptor modulators. Early intervention and patient-directed care are important aspects of treatment. We describe the pathogenetic mechanism of spironolactone-induced gynecomastia and provide a case report of a 52-year-old male patient.</p> Shaik Khadeer Ahamed, Sanjana Reddy Thota, Deepthi Dara, Rama Rao Tadikonda Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Beyond the ‘tic’ king clock: a case report on adult onset tic disorder <p>Tic is rapid recurrent non-rhythmic motor movement or vocalization; movement of limbs or other body parts is known as motor tic and involuntary repetitive sound like grunting sniffing throat clearing is known as a vocal tic. Tic is a neurodevelopmental disorder and has its onset in the developmental period. According to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental illnesses (DSM) 5, tic should have its onset before 18 years of age and can resolve with proper treatment. In this case, a 23-year-old female presented with recurrent abnormal throat clearing and excessive loud sounds which started for the last 1 year. Initially, she was diagnosed with psychogenic hiccup in another department and was treated with Baclofen 30 mg for 1 month but as no improvement was observed later she was referred to psychiatry outpatient department (OPD) for further treatment where she was diagnosed with adult onset vocal tic with a premonitory urge for tics scale (PUTS) score of 27 on admission and she was treated with tablet Risperidone 2 mg and after 4 weeks of treatment all symptoms subside and PUTS score came to be 6 at the time of discharge.</p> Akash Bose, Salmali Nandi, Aditya K. Sarkar, Shreyashi Paul, Surjya Roy, Saikat Baidya Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Scleroderma and dental implications: a case series <p>Systemic sclerosis (SSC) is a rare, systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by fibrosis of visceral organs, skin and blood vessels. This disorder can be localized or systemic. It is more common in women with estimated prevalence is 250 cases in a million. Oral manifestations include xerostomia, periodontitis, decayed tooth etc. Radiographically generalized loss of bone with resorption of the mandibular angle and coronoid process can be evident in patients with scleroderma. Pressure of fibrous mucocutaneous tissues is thought to be the cause of the resorption. Decreased number of wrinkles due to sclerosis and distinct facial features because of the atrophy of ala nasi are among common clinical characteristics of this condition. The aim of this case series is to present two female patients with scleroderma who presented with signs of oral manifestations along with resorption at the angle of mandible, as well as widening of the periodontal space<em>.</em></p> M. Veera Kumari, Sumalatha M. N., G. Kartheek, Suma Kalyani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring human mammaglobin: as a possible diagnostic and prognostic indicator in breast cancer tissue <p>Breast cancer is a major global health issue, with high diagnosis rates worldwide, especially in less developed areas, leading to significant mortality rates. This review focuses on the molecular characteristics of breast cancer, emphasizing the role of human mammaglobin-A (hMAM-A) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. hMAM-A, a dimeric protein from the secretoglobin family, is produced exclusively by breast tissue and shows elevated levels in breast cancer cases, making it a highly accurate marker for disease detection. The review also examines various factors influencing breast cancer, such as age, tobacco use, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Younger age at diagnosis is associated with poorer outcomes, highlighting the importance of early detection. Tobacco smoke increases mortality rates in breast cancer patients. Menopausal status affects molecular subtypes and risk factors, impacting treatment and prognosis. HRT has a complex relationship with breast cancer risk. The review concludes by discussing the need for novel biomarkers, including hMAM-A, to improve breast cancer diagnosis and management.</p> Zayed M. Alnefaie, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Samer Alsamiri, Morad Banjar, Waleed Alquliti, Alzahrani Adel, Saeed M. Nagash Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bowel screening: a mini literature review <p>Bowel cancer is a global health issue with more than 500.000 yearly new cases and a 12.6% mortality of all cancer cases. Studies suggest the financial burden of bowel cancer in Europe in 2015 was estimated at 19.1 billion Euros. Effective bowel screening promotes prevention and early detection of bowel cancer. There is a variation in bowel screening uptake across the globe, trials and pilot studies in the UK suggest uptake is around 50-60% in the UK, compared to much lower uptake in lower income countries. This mini literature review aims to shed some light on the magnitude of the problem, global variations in screening uptake, barriers to bowel screening uptake and explore ways to improve bowel screening uptake. Personal beliefs, social taboo and lack of knowledge are some of the barriers identified in this review, healthcare professionals have a pivotal role in opportunistic health promotion and encouraging patients to utilize bowel screening services, furthermore health educational campaigns targeting school children, students and other groups in the wider community may help increase bowel cancer awareness and the importance of bowel screening. A national recall system for bowel screening is an important step in improving uptake in low-income countries who have not achieved such a service yet.</p> Marwa Khattabi, Mai Alsammak Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Applications of terahertz waves in medical diagnostics: a literature review <p>Terahertz (THz) waves, occupying a unique position bridging microwave and infrared wavelengths, exhibit promising potential across diverse domains, particularly in medicine. With attributes such as non-ionizing nature and notable resolution capabilities, THz waves offer avenues for non-invasive medical applications. In cancer diagnosis, THz spectroscopy emerges as a pivotal tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of biomarkers, enabling swift and accurate differentiation of substances based on molecular structure. Despite challenges such as limited penetration depth in tissue, THz imaging proves invaluable in discriminating cancerous tissues from normal ones during surgery. In this paper we have summarized recent research results on practical implementation of THz waves in medicine. Recent advancements in in vivo imaging showcase promising results, although challenges persist in human-based studies due to tissue complexity. Integration of advanced algorithms enhances the accuracy of cancerous tissue identification. Additionally, THz spectroscopy finds versatile applications in pharmaceuticals and life sciences, offering insights into molecular interactions critical for drug efficacy and understanding protein conformations. Further advancements in THz systems, including enhanced light sources and detectors, are crucial to propel biomedical research forward. Establishment of a comprehensive THz spectrum database will augment existing data, emphasizing the potential of THz waves to revolutionize medical diagnostics and treatment modalities.</p> Manushak Movsisyan, Amirah Abdulmohsen Al-Rossais, Shibli Sayeed, Gayane Movsisyan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Home round: a strategy for improving community health <p>In community health practice, home rounds are essential. In Nigeria, a home round is a regular visit to outpatients/clients in their homes by a team of community health specialists to make decisions concerning patient/client’s care, review, and follow-up on the progress of their health condition. The team visits within the treatment period to make sure the patient is adhering to prescriptions, address any barriers to care, and make referrals if necessary. Home rounds start with examining patient records, putting together a team, assessing patients in their homes, and recording the findings and actions. A competent community health practitioner (CHP) should be compassionate, informed, and skillful at conducting house rounds, identifying family health problems, and taking the necessary action. In primary health care, home rounds can detect less common but serious individual and family conditions; and enhance community health. However, challenges like shortage of manpower, insecurity, lack of logistics, and unskillful health workers have made home rounds impossible in some primary healthcare facilities. To facilitate home rounds, it is recommended that governmental and nongovernmental organizations train community health practitioners in home rounding, provide logistics at primary healthcare facilities, and staff each health center with a sufficient number of community health practitioners by primary healthcare standards. Community health practitioners should be adaptable, sensitive, and skilled, and families and communities should work together to provide security.</p> Doris A. Dotimi, Joel Usen Silas, Yohanna Wamanyi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Implementing dietary counselling in family practice for diabetes control and prevention <p>The importance of dietary counselling in family practice for managing and preventing diabetes is the focal point of this review, highlighting its integral role in chronic disease management. With diabetes increasingly prevalent worldwide, there is a critical need for effective management strategies, with dietary interventions playing a key role. Family practitioners, often the initial point of contact for patients, have a unique opportunity to implement these dietary changes, which are pivotal in influencing diabetes outcomes and averting long-term complications. Despite facing challenges such as limited time and the need for specialized knowledge, dietary counselling in family practice stands as a proactive measure focused on prevention and early intervention. It adopts a patient-centered approach, where dietary habits and preferences are assessed, and personalized, evidence-based advice is provided. The inclusion of dietitians in primary care teams, utilization of technology for support, and advocacy for policy reforms are recommended to enhance the effectiveness of dietary counselling. Despite various obstacles, integrating dietary counselling into routine care remains a significant advantage, promoting healthier lifestyle choices and effectively managing the increasing burden of chronic diseases.</p> Marwah Y. Abdullah, Atheer M. Aljuaid, Yasmeen W. Alshamary, Bassam Z. Alshammari, Nada M. Alsufyani, Rana A. Alkhaldi, Aljoharah M. Alwajaan, Hussam S. Alenazi, Bandar T. Alshammari, Shadia N. Alrasheedi, Khaled F. Alnuwaimees Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Current trends in the methods of identification in forensic dentistry: a review of literature <p>Dental evidence in forensic investigation has been in practice for many years. Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology predominantly involves the identification of human remains, by comparing the dental evidence of deceased persons recovered from the scene of an accident or a crime (post-mortem dental data) with the ante-mortem dental records. The use of dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike, and the teeth are unique for everyone. In addition, dental structures are not only the hardest and most protected structures in the body, but are also the most resistant to degradation due to environmental impact. Identification of a deceased individual using forensic odontology is possible with a higher degree certainty, as it is possible to apply multiple tools such as dental imaging, tongue print, lip print, rugoscopy, tooth signature, ameloglyphics, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis, bite-marks, dentures and prosthesis, facial reconstruction, virtopsy and software applications. Since the role of a forensic dentist extends even beyond identification, especially in the absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, teeth become a determinant factor in identification, and determination of age, gender and ethnicity. Although several methods and techniques of identification have been described in forensic dentistry, there is no comprehensive resource that describes them all in detail. Therefore, this review paper aims to analyze and discuss the available methods of identification in forensic dentistry, their merits and limitations, and how they might be of help to the forensic dentists and pathologists.</p> Ahmed A. Zahrani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Infective keratitis: a concise overview of the clinical characteristics and treatment of keratitis caused by microbial agents <p>The following document provides an overview of microbial keratitis, a well-known sight-threatening inflammation of the cornea that progresses to the corneal ulcer. Sometimes, such infection is difficult to identify and cure due to the involvement of multiple pathogens implicated in the specific disorders because of similar symptoms and immunological responses. Instead of fungi and protozoa, viruses and bacteria are the most prevalent pathogens that cause microbial keratitis. A virus contains protein-encased genetic material and may infect any living creature, including bacteria and fungi, by replicating inside the host's cell and infecting neighbouring cells. Bacteria are complicated pathogens that may thrive in any media and cause harm to host cells, often through the production of toxins. Fungi are far more difficult; they spread quickly and can cause harm to several organs at the same time if the immune system is compromised. Protozas are found freely in the environment and once invade the cornea, divide quickly and become difficult to identify as well as treat, because of their involvement or in conjunction with polymicrobials. These microbes show common symptoms after invading the cornea although; their common diagnostic procedures show different results to trace out their existence in the tissue. Up to some extent, specific treatment can cure the disease with certain conditions according to a load of microbes, therefore visual status gets hampered, otherwise total loss of the eye takes place due to the endophthalmitis.</p> Mahesh Chandra, Jitendra Singh, Ayush Jha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated analysis of health dynamics in esports: injury profiles, intervention strategies, and health optimization protocols <p>The rapidly expanding realm of Electronic Sports (eSports) has captivated global attention, blurring the lines between virtual entertainment and traditional athletics. As participation in eSports continues to rise, these competitive gaming platforms are increasingly recognized as legitimate sports. However, with this surge in participation, there's a simultaneous increase in the susceptibility to health hazards, spanning both physical and psychological domains. Musculoskeletal injuries, caused by extended sedentary postures and repetitive motions, afflict eSports athletes, resulting in discomfort in the wrists and hands, alongside back and neck problems. The prolonged exposure to screens predisposes participants to vision-related concerns, highlighting the imperative of addressing ocular health within the eSports community. Simultaneously, the intense cognitive demands and competitive pressures exacerbate mental health challenges, resulting in depression and anxiety among players. Similar to traditional athletes, eSports competitors need appropriate protocols to minimize injury risks, alongside access to medical intervention to manage potential health hazards. This review comprehensively analyses the health dynamics of eSports, elucidating injury profiles, intervention strategies, and health optimization protocols essential for safeguarding the well-being of eSports athletes and enhancing awareness within the eSports community.</p> Rima Mondal, Nithish G. S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Application of models of behavior change communication in various stages of healthcare <p>A resource-limited country like India calls for a deeper focus on preventive health than it is now. So far, behaviour change communication (BCC) has been more or less limited to campaigns and awareness activities. Treating physicians applying BCC interventions in their clinics is particularly rare. This article aims to describe the role of BCC at the primary healthcare level in preventing diseases. The article also attempts to highlight the importance of BCC in helping cure and rehabilitate patients. Evidence-based interventions can be derived from BCC models that help physicians handle their patients better. Health education an already defined domain of health promotion will be the key to achieving the said goal. It promises to be one of the cheap and effective tools in achieving the vision of universal healthcare. It provides room for flexibility and customised care for each patient. After a thorough understanding of various models and theories of BCC, a physician should be able to apply them on a regular basis in their day-to-day interaction with patients in the most scientific manner possible.</p> Sylvia George, Anupriya Jha, Anjan Kumar Giri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Trends in budget allocation for primary healthcare: a decadal perspective on prioritization in Tamil Nadu <p>The healthcare industry in Tamil Nadu has evolved significantly during the last decade, with changes in budget allocations and policy goals. This article examines the state's health budget from 2013 to 2023, focusing on public health programs and healthcare delivery systems. Examining budgetary trends and allocation patterns sheds light on the complex relationship between resource prioritizing and healthcare outcomes. Key findings indicate a large increase in the state's overall budget, but with variable distribution among health departments. While the directorate of medical education (DME) receives a substantial portion, there are concerns regarding the diminishing distribution of essential healthcare services, particularly within the directorate of preventive medicine and public health (DPH). Despite this, Tamil Nadu's commitment to addressing public health concerns is evident in its purposeful investments in health and wellness centers (HWCs) and in its steps to reduce out-of-pocket costs. According to the recommendations, budget allocations should be reevaluated to ensure equal distribution based on population requirements and illness load. Furthermore, optimizing resource allocation and improving primary healthcare services, notably through enhanced DPH assistance, are critical for maintaining the state's excellent healthcare results. To summaries, Tamil Nadu's healthcare environment is a dynamic interaction of funding allocations, policy agendas, and public health results. As the state navigates changing challenges and opportunities, a data-driven approach to decision-making and a renewed emphasis on outcome-based healthcare programs are critical for improving the well-being of its citizens.</p> Sendilkumar Balasundaram, Tamilchudar Raju, Mani Natesan, Lekshmi Krishnapillai Syamalakumari Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Lazarus syndrome-a miraculous revival <p>The Lazarus syndrome, named after the biblical account of Lazarus, being raised from the dead, refers to the uncommon occurrence of spontaneous recovery of circulation following failed resuscitation attempts. This review article delves into the historical foundations, underlying mechanisms, prominent instances, disputes, ethical concerns, medical interventions, and psychological consequences of Lazarus syndrome. Despite being recorded in medical literature, the mechanisms underlying this condition are not well known. Possible explanations include medication-related delays, hyperkalemia, reperfusion damage, myocardial shock, and brainstem reflexes. While Lazarus syndrome calls into question our notion of life and death, it also raises ethical concerns about death verification, informed consent, quality of life, resource allocation, and cultural values therapies include diagnosing underlying reasons, enhanced cardiac life support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, therapeutic hypothermia, and ongoing monitoring. The psychological burden on healthcare staff and families is significant, necessitating assistance and coping measures. Understanding and managing the intricacies of Lazarus syndrome is critical to the well-being of everyone concerned.</p> Adithya V., Don Jose K. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Premature presbyopia: causes, diagnosis, and management strategies - an overview <p>Premature presbyopia refers to the early onset of age-related vision changes typically associated with presbyopia, a condition characterized by the loss of near vision accommodation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the causes, diagnosis, and management strategies for premature presbyopia. The database collected from PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Cochrane library, and Google scholar and research gate. This review discusses the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to premature presbyopia, including genetic factors, environmental influences, and ocular conditions. Additionally, the diagnostic criteria and assessment methods used to identify premature presbyopia and differentiate it from other vision disorders. Finally, this review examines various management options for premature presbyopia, including corrective lenses, pharmacological interventions, surgical procedures, and emerging treatments. By understanding the factors contributing to premature presbyopia and implementing appropriate management strategies, healthcare professionals can effectively address the needs of individuals experiencing early onset age-related vision changes.</p> K. M. Sonali, Gaurav Dubey, Kamal Pant, Aditya Tripathi, Priti Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Feeding practices and obstetricians recommendations during COVID-19: a telephone-based qualitative study in South India <p>Infant and young child feeding practice (IYCF) by World Health Organization (WHO) strongly encourage initiation and continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the COVID-19 pandemic backdrop with essential counseling about the benefits of breastfeeding against risks of transmission. This study aimed to explore qualitatively the knowledge and understand the recommended practices regarding infant and IYCFs during COVID-19 pandemic among obstetricians in diverse care settings in Chennai. One-to-One telephone-interviews were conducted among sixteen obstetric practitioners from diverse care settings in Chennai during May 2021-October 2021 using a 13-item interview guide and recorded with informed consent. The transcribed data were analyzed thematically. Among the all-female study participants, the mean age was 39.7 years (SD=10.45 years) and 68.8% (11) were aged 31-40 years, 180 lactating mothers received COVID-19 counseling and 130 referred for testing in preceding month, 56.3% were aware that COVID- 19 is not passed in breast milk and 93.8% knew it is safe to feed breast milk from suspected or confirmed positive mothers. All obstetricians were aware of hygiene recommendations for lactation mothers and only 75% were aware of WHO recommendation for IYCF during-COVID-19. This qualitative study unearths the key areas to focus on during awareness and training sessions for obstetricians further strengthen the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Sree T. Sucharitha, R. Vijaya Lakshmi, R. Venugopal, Revathi Rajasingh, R. Nivetha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Community based household data collection in a post pandemic world-challenges and way forward <p>The COVID pandemic has instilled fear in the community creating challenges for household data collection. A community-based household survey was planned to assess knowledge and perception about air pollution caused by vehicular traffic and related ailments among residents of Delhi along with willingness to accept (WTA)/willingness to pay (WTP) discount/premium to discontinue/continue the use of private vehicles for their daily office commute. Access into households was difficult due to heightened sensitivity in post COVID situation. Respondents were not available during working hours. Researchers reached out to participants at workplaces, community events, during weekends or after office hours. Safety of researchers due to odd working hours was a concern. Researchers in post-pandemic world need to plan for multiple modes to access participants. Timelines of the data collection phase need to be sensitive for higher proportion of refusals and necessary permissions. Higher investments in effective communication skills are necessary.</p> Mansi Rajput, Reesha Premjit, Shambhavi Bhagat, Ranjana Singh, Shomik Ray Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000