International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2024-03-30T14:28:34+00:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH)</strong> is an open access, international, monthly, peer-reviewed journal publishes articles of authors from India and abroad with special emphasis on original research findings that are relevant for developing country perspectives including India.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research articles, focusing on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology and social medicine, invited annotations and comments, invited papers on recent advances, clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and management review article, short communication/brief reports, letters to the editor, case reports, etc. The journal covers population based studies, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation, systematic review, meta-analysis, clinic-social studies etc., related to any domain and discipline of public health, especially relevant to national priorities, including ethical and social issues. Articles aligned with national health issues and policy implications are preferred. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2394-6032</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2394-6040</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Community Med Public Health.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a title="PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101711371, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalId=31416" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalID=32537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScopeMed</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23946032&amp;uid=r5af96" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> Secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to oral health: an integrative review 2024-02-05T22:15:48+00:00 Monicky M. Araujo Maria da Penha R. dos Santos Sydia Oliveira <p>The damage resulting from the pandemic will be lasting, at all levels of health care, with a strong influence on the use of dental services. This integrative review aims to identify the secondary impacts of covid-19 on access to oral health. Data were collected from SciELO, PubMed/Medline; BVS/Lilacs. The selection of studies initially occurred by reading the titles and abstracts, then selecting the articles that should be read in full. Snowball strategy was used from the selected studies. In total 388 studies were collected and 24 analyzed. After reading the texts in full, it was possible to observe that they are divided into themes: dental problems faced by users of health systems during the pandemic; immediate solutions to face the great demand for dental care; projections of public policy need for the future. Restrictions imposed on dental care had a negative impact on health services, mainly affecting the poorest segments of the population. Expanding access to dental treatments and water fluoridation are urgent measures that must be implemented, in addition to the application of public policies aimed at oral health. or, such as sitting time throughout the day, in addition to the importance to increase the physical activity pattern.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Current role of viral biomarkers in cervical carcinogenesis 2024-01-21T06:25:08+00:00 Akshatha Daniel Shriyaa Daniel Kavitha Nagandla <p>Viral biomarkers for cervical cancer screening are valuable in improving timely diagnosis and detection at early stage. The various biomarkers currently there is evidence include high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing, there is place for further research for biomarkers such as hrHPV genotyping hrHPV transcriptional status, and host DNA methylation. Though the evidence is conclusive for hrHPV DNA testing, there is place for further research for biomarkers such as hrHPV genotyping hrHPV transcriptional status, and host DNA methylation. This application of these biomarkers in context of low resource settings has its limitations despite high prevalence of the disease. Improved women participation can be achieved by use of self-samples thereby improving diagnoses rate of the disease and higher cost effectiveness of the screening programme. In due course, biomarkers will be made available in the screening programmes together with self-sampling that will detect hrHPV infections and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) before they progress to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and from there to malignancy. This would facilitate prudent timely clinical decisions, reduced patient anxiety, reduction in over referral and unnecessary treatments in women, especially in developing countries.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Health situation analysis of cervical cancer in Delhi 2024-02-14T15:43:44+00:00 Jyoti Sharma Kavitha Dhanasekaran Madhavi Yennapu <p class="abstract" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt;">The capital city of India, Delhi is endowed with a plethora of multi- and super-specialty hospitals, both private and government, for treating various diseases. Patients from around the globe seek medical care in Delhi. The primary healthcare system is robust, with a network of newly established Mohalla and polyclinics. However, when it comes to a sensitive disease, ‘cervical cancer’, all glorious claims mentioned above seem to be inadequate. Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common cancer among Delhi's females. Delhi was 1st state to launch HPV vaccination as a public health program in 2016 despite resistance from civil societies. A situation analysis from literature reveals that cervical cancer screening services at the primary and secondary levels are on the backburner in Delhi, which is also evident from the poor screening habits of Delhi's females (0.7%) according to NFHS-5. This prompts questions regarding organization of the cervical cancer prevention program (NP-NCD) and the delivery of screening services in Delhi. In this review we have tried to illuminate the contemporary landscape of cervical cancer burden, screening, and treatment, while also identifying opportunities for enhancing cervical cancer management in Delhi. The study finds that implementation research targeted at finding barriers in program organization and service delivery would help strengthen the capacity of Delhi’s health system.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Is India ready for fundamental right to health? 2024-01-31T05:58:09+00:00 Vasudha Khanna Neha Dumka Atul Kotwal <p>The right to health, a vital indicator of human development and thus, the economic and social development, has been an age-old phenomenon in India. Although, no explicit recognition to the right to health or healthcare has been given under the Indian constitution, the hon’ble supreme court, through various judicial interpretations, has repeatedly observed that right to health is a part of fundamental right to life and personal liberty enshrined under article 21. However, the fundamental policy question being raised in recent years is whether to guarantee health as a separate fundamental right in India. The issues for consideration are multifarious, the most important being- whether we have reached the level of economic and health systems development so as to make this a justiciable right-implying that its denial is an offense.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Exploring onco-fertility perceptions in India: a narrative review of psychosocial factors and implications for patients well-being 2024-02-23T10:44:32+00:00 Ramya S. Praveen K. Sheelam <p>Onco-fertility, the confluence of cancer and fertility preservation, is vital in modern healthcare. As global cancer survival rates rise, more patients aim to overcome cancer and safeguard their reproductive potential. This review explores onco-fertility in India, emphasizing psychosocial factors. It acknowledges cancer's profound implications on fertility, stressing informed decision-making and comprehensive care for dual challenges. The review explores various preservation options for both genders, highlighting India's evolving landscape. India's onco-fertility landscape, driven by rising cancer diagnoses and disparities, needs tailored services. Understanding psychosocial factors is crucial for addressing emotional distress, cultural contexts, and communication barriers. This review delves into factors influencing decisions and well-being, informing practices to better serve Indian cancer patients. Examining psychological distress and decision-making in balancing treatment and fertility preservation, it explores cultural, religious, and ethical considerations. It underscores the need for comprehensive psychosocial support. Addressing psychosocial factors is vital for enhancing cancer survivors' quality of life. The review emphasizes bridging information gaps, providing emotional support, promoting informed decision-making, and fostering collaboration. It calls for further research and initiatives to advance onco-fertility support, considering India's diverse psychosocial landscape.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health The impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the risk of hospitalization in Fayoum healthcare workers 2023-07-01T09:24:43+00:00 Shaimaa Abdallah Gebili Amal Ali Abu El Hassab Ashraf Ibrahim Mohammed Asmaa Rohym Hatem Gamal El-Din Mohamed Abdelhamed Fathy Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Abdelhafez Asmaa Younis Elsary <p><strong>Background:</strong> Healthcare workers (HCWs) face several challenges including treating COVID-19 patients. The immunization of the population through vaccination is recognized as a public health priority. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of vaccination on the risk of hospitalization and mortality in HCWs due to COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in Egypt in El Fayoum governorate on the HCWs from April 2021 to the end of the year 2021. A cohort retrospective approach was carried out using (the national electronic disease surveillance system) NEDSS and COVID-19 vaccine registration system. Hospitalization is determined by assessment of the cases according to the protocol of COVID-19 management of MOHP November 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> There was no association between hospitalization and both sex and residence (p=0.1, and 0.06 respectively). There was no statistical significant association between hospitalization and vaccination (time, status, or type). The p=0.2, 0.6, and 0.07 respectively. Age and the presence of comorbidities were statistically significant predictors with p=0.004 and 0.04, respectively, as increasing age and the presence of comorbidities will increase the likelihood of hospitalization by 1.04 and 1.9 folds, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study shows no significant association between vaccination and hospitalization of HCWs.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Knowledge and perception of hypercholesterolemia among Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University students 2024-02-25T05:58:21+00:00 Huny Bakry Bushra K. Alharbi Raghad H. Zaini Reema H. Araki Sara T. Alshammari Howeida Abusalih <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which could escalate mortality rates in Saudi Arabia. Research has shown that the prevalence of high cholesterol in Saudi Arabia is predicted to rise in the next few years. The knowledge and perception are important as this is one of the modifiable risk factors for NCDs. The aim of study is to assess the knowledge and perception regarding hypercholesterolemia among university students and to determine if there is any relation between knowledge and perception of hypercholesterolemia among university students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study using a self-administrated questionnaire measuring the knowledge and perception of hypercholesterolemia was conducted among 588 medical and non-medical students at Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result indicates that 54.93% of the participants had poor knowledge about hypercholesterolemia and 79.76% of them had a positive perception about it.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is a gap in knowledge and perception regarding high cholesterol. Furthermore, it was found that there is a significant association between the knowledge and perception regarding hypercholesterolemia among Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University students.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Effects of the use of contraceptives: a case of women in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana 2024-02-27T17:40:56+00:00 Sara Agyemang Antwi Jemima Aggrey Appiah Abenaa Owusuaa Adu <p><strong>Background:</strong> Contraceptive use during a woman's reproductive years can help prevent unintended pregnancies, maternal deaths, and other non-reproductive problems. However, there is also a risk of running into various health challenges. The study aimed at finding out if women in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana encounter health issues during and after use of contraceptives was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Questionnaires were administered to 600 women out of which 401 responses were carefully gleaned for analysis using SPSS version 25. The questionnaire probed side and adverse effects women encountered in their use of contraceptives as well as the types of contraceptives they preferred.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that the use of contraceptives was widely prevalent, especially amongst women aged 21-30 years (61.8%). The preferred types of contraceptives were the oral-progestin only (42.9%) and combined oral contraceptives (31.4%). Spotting or bleeding between periods (menstrual-related) was the highest reported side effect (33.2%), followed by weight gain (metabolic-related), 21.7%. Pearson’s Chi squared test showed an association between the age of respondents and the choice of contraceptive type at p&lt;0.01. Hypertension and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were the highest reported adverse effect (10.2% and 9.2% respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that contraceptive use (especially the oral type) may cause discomfort with the side effects reported in women of reproductive age and it may be a contributing factor to other health conditions in susceptible women.</p> 2024-03-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Reasons for non-performing pap smear screening in nurses and midwives working in Ardabil city health centers 2024-01-23T14:54:54+00:00 Fatemeh Eghbali-Amoughin Narges Salehi Sima Khavandizadeh Aqdam <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cervical cancer screening has been introduced a few years ago to prevent harm and death caused by this disease. Our purpose in this study was to determine the reasons for non-performing Pap smear screening in nurses and midwives working in Ardabil health centers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The current descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 90 nurses and midwives working in health care centers in Ardabil city. The required information was collected through a questionnaire. After additional sampling and data collection from all participants in the research, it was coded and statistically analyzed in SPSS version 25 software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present study showed that the most common reason for not performing a pap smear test in single people and in the age group of 20-30 years is related to virginity and in married people and in the age group of 30-50 years. It was related to the fear of doing it.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> considering the cases that most women in the society are aware of cervical cancer and also the necessity of using cancer screening methods, using new educational methods through nurses and midwives to change their attitude and performance and increase their level and help in the timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Knowledge and screening practices for breast cancer among women of reproductive age in Akodo town, Lagos, Nigeria 2024-01-25T10:38:14+00:00 Olayinka O. Bamidele Charles C. Egonu Ridwan A. Oladejo <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer (BC) is a major global health concern, especially in developing regions like Nigeria. This study addresses the knowledge gap, screening practices, and associated factors related to BC among women of reproductive age in Akodo town, Lagos, Nigeria. It is crucial to explore this aspect of women's health as early detection through screening is vital in reducing mortality rates associated with BC.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was adopted for this study using women of reproductive age living in Akodo town. A total of 320 respondents was recruited through multistage sampling technique. SPSS was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most respondents (232, 80%) were aware of BC, of which only 122, (52.6%) knew about at least one screening method. About half, 125 (53.9%) had good knowledge of BC. Only 25% had good screening practice of BC, with 47 (84.5%) having done self-breast examination (SBE) only, 2 (3.4%) had had clinical breast examination (CBE) only, 6 (10.3%) had done both SBE and CBE, while only one (1.7%) had ever had a mammogram. Knowledge of screening methods as well as age below 40 years [OR=2.76; 95% CI (1.00-7.58), OR=2.97; 95% CI (1.09-8.11)] were associated with good screening practices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Though awareness about BC has significantly increased, screening practices is still very low. Hence, knowledge about the various screening practices needs to be scaled up, and probably incentives should probably be given to those who go for screening.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Predisposing and enabling factors influencing the utilisation of maternal healthcare services at fishing landing sites in Buikwe district, Uganda 2024-01-25T12:20:53+00:00 Rashidah Namukasa Newton Ekakoro Gerald Amatre Martha Kaddumukasa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Studies have demonstrated that women who get professional healthcare personnel's prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care have better pregnancy outcomes, which lowers the incidence of both neonatal and mother deaths. Uganda is among the sub-Saharan African countries with the highest percentages of maternal deaths of which the majority of the deaths take place in remote, resource-constrained areas, such as fishing landing sites. We investigated the factors influencing the use of maternity healthcare services by women from remote Lake Victoria islands fishing settlements in the Buikwe district of Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study design with a quantitative approach was used. One hundred and four mothers were recruited in the study carried out at Ssenyi, Kiyindi and Nkombwe landing site in Buikwe district. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from mothers about predisposing factors, and enabling factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which factors influenced the use of maternal healthcare services.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Marital status (p=0.045, aOR=0.582; 95% CI=0.163-2.082) and paternal occupation (p=0.017, aOR=1.335; 95% CI=0.059-8.348) were the factors influencing maternal healthcare service utilisation among the respondents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Increasing the amount of actions meant to raise socioeconomic standing and involving the men in maternal health seeking might aid in enhancing maternal healthcare services use by women at the landing sites in Uganda.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Diagnosis delay and factors associated with delay among tuberculosis patients in Mombasa County, Kenya 2024-01-29T19:36:45+00:00 Joshua Limo Rosebella Onyango <p><strong>Background:</strong> Most tuberculosis (TB) transmissions occur between the onset of symptoms and treatment initiation. Early case identification and treatment initiation is an effective method to control the spread of TB, but the lack of a clear understanding about the extent of TB diagnostic delay and the factors contributing to delay continue to derail progress in combating the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of diagnostic delay and factors associated with delay among TB patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An analytic cross-sectional survey of 302 TB patients on the intensive phase of treatment was carried out to determine the diagnostic delay period among TB patients. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The mean patient delay and associations between the length of patient delay and the various independent variables were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean diagnostic delay was 47 days, patient delay was 34 days and health system delay was 13 days. Patients with extrapulmonary TB had lengthy diagnostic delay of 81 days. Prolonged delay was associated with low TB awareness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study findings underscore the need to improve the quality of TB awareness in the community; campaigns should go beyond providing general information about TB to emphasize on early care-seeking.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health The factors associated with chronic energy deficiency in breastfeeding mothers 2024-02-01T10:18:55+00:00 Citra Puspa Juwita Bernadetha Nadeak Carmen Siagian Elferida Sormin <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic energy deficiency (CED) in breastfeeding mothers is very likely to occur because apart from the mother meeting the recovery needs of giving birth, the mother also provides breast milk to her baby. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the incidence of CED in breastfeeding mothers.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The research was conducted on 203 breastfeeding mothers who were randomly selected from 10 villages in Kefamenanu Regency, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), Indonesia. Data collection was done directly by nutrition officer with interviews using g-form. Data were analysed using the Chi Square.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that the factors associated with the incidence of CED in breastfeeding mothers were age {OR=0.5 times (CI 95%: 0.257-1.054)} and parity of the number of children in the family OR=2.1 times (95%: 1-4.4)}, as well as family income which is not directly related to the incidence of CED in the mother {OR=1.7 times (CI 95%: 0.5-6.3)}.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Factors associated with CED in breastfeeding mothers are age, the parity of the number of children in family, and family income. Support from the family is vital for breastfeeding mothers to meet their nutritional needs.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Factors affecting breast cancer risk level and the prevalence of early diagnosis and screening in a group of Turkish women according to the Gail model 2024-02-02T19:07:27+00:00 Bennur Koca Ayla Acikgoz <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer, which is the most prevalent and common cause of death in women in the world and Turkey, is an important public health problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of breast cancer risk according to the Gail model in a group of Turkish women and to determine the factors affecting the rates of early diagnosis and screening.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study in Turkey. A total of 1332 women who were aged between 40 and 69 participated. The study data were collected by using a questionnaire consisting of questions about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, early diagnosis and screening behaviors, and Gail model questions for determining the breast cancer risk level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The risk was higher in women who had their first childbirth at the age of ≥30 years and had a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (p&lt;0.05). There was a significant relationship between the breast self-examination behavior of the women and their age, education level, and family history of cancer, between their clinical breast examination behavior and age, education level, employment status, and chronic disease history, and between the behavior of getting a mammogram and age, education level, and chronic disease history (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Accurate assessment of breast cancer risk and participation of women in screening programs reduce morbidity and mortality rates.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Mental health dynamics among COVID-19 survivors: anxiety and depression in urban Nepal 2024-02-04T06:32:20+00:00 Prabha Gautam <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a profound impact on global mental health, with developing countries like Nepal facing exacerbated challenges. This study investigates the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression among COVID-19 survivors recognizing the pivotal role of socio-demographic and health-related factors in shaping mental health outcomes during the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Employing an analytical cross-sectional design, the study engaged 150 COVID-19 survivors from Kathmandu's Urban Health Clinic. Participants were selected through systematic random sampling and data were collected via a combination of semi-structured and closed-ended questionnaires, incorporating the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) 21. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression to understand the associations and predictors of anxiety and depression among the survivors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that a significant proportion of COVID-19 survivors experienced anxiety and depression at varying levels. 82% of the participants exhibited normal depression levels, while 18% reported symptoms ranging from mild to extremely severe. Anxiety was more prevalent, with 58% showing normal levels and 42% experiencing mild to extremely severe anxiety. Key predictors of depression included lack of access to COVID health services, while anxiety was significantly associated with residence type, overall health status during COVID-19, treatment type, and concerns about future waves of the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study emphasize the crucial need for accessible healthcare services and comprehensive mental health support. Policymakers and healthcare providers should integrate mental health services into post-COVID recovery plans, focusing on tailored interventions for survivors' needs.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health The access carried out in oral health services post-COVID-19 pandemic: a temporal analysis of the SIA-SUS in Jaboatão dos Guararapes 2024-02-05T22:13:43+00:00 Monicky M. Araujo Karolayne E. M. da Silva Maria da Penha R. dos Santos Sydia Oliveira <p><strong>Background: </strong>Aim of the study was to evaluate the access provided, represented by the use of dental services, by users of the unified health system (SUS), in Jaboatão dos Guararapes (PE), during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Time series analysis of data on dental activities and procedures carried out by dentists registered in the SUS ambulatory information system (SIA-SUS), between January and December, from 2013 to 2022, as a way of characterizing the access carried out, a characteristic of use of services.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The data reveal that there was a reduction in the supply of dental care in all categories during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the first two years: 2020 and 2021.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The data analyzed corroborate the perception that the restrictions imposed on care dental services offered by the unified health system had a negative impact on health services in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes (PE).</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Motivation on the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in Calabarzon region, Philippines 2024-02-10T06:15:48+00:00 Gillie Grace Laguc Patricia Camille Quilantang Merry Joyce Respicio Joyce Rea Mae Fernandez Jose Gerardo Aquino Kevin Jace Miranda Rogie Royce Carandang <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 vaccination is essential for public health, aiming to limit virus transmission and severity of illness. The motivation for individuals to get vaccinated can vary and is influenced by a combination of factors. This study aimed to identify the factors that motivated Filipino residents in Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon Province, or the Calabarzon region to get vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized in this study. Researcher-made survey questionnaires were distributed online through Google forms. Study participants were either fully or partially vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines or have received their booster shots. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the extrinsic and intrinsic factors toward uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The participants’ overall knowledge and attitude were scored using Bloom’s cut-off point.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 398 participants were approached from June to July 2022. Participants were 55.3% female, and the majority were 29 years and below (77.1%). Family/friends, lifestyle, government, community, and peers/associates were the extrinsic factors that motivated them to get vaccinated. As for the intrinsic factors, 86.4% showed adequate knowledge and 63.6% had positive attitude towards the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> To have a successful vaccination campaign, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors must be considered when exploring the motivation of local residents to get vaccinated for COVID-19. Family/friends were the primary extrinsic factor, followed by lifestyle, government, community, and peers/associates. Most participants showed adequate knowledge and a positive attitude toward the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Focusing on these factors may address vaccine hesitancy.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Factors associated with stunting incidence in toddlers in Cibungbulang sub-district, Bogor 2024-02-15T04:53:54+00:00 Rosmida M. Marbun Rina Efiyanna Meilinasari Fairuz Dhia Rabbani <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stunting is a developmental disorder characterized by L/A or H/A index z-score ≤2 SD and contribute to various negative impacts until adulthood. The prevalence of stunting among toddlers in Bogor Regency reached 24.9 percent according to SSGI. This study aimed to determine relationships between family income, being breastfed and drinking other milks, eating habits, handwashing and oral hygiene habits with stunting incidence among toddlers in Cibungbulang sub-district.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used cross-sectional design with 307 samples selected through systematic randomization. Almost all data, except stunting, were collected through interview with respondents, while stunting was identified through height measurement.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most toddlers had family income under the minimum wage (81.4%), did not drink breast milk anymore (52,4%), consumed other milks (60.6%), ate independently (69.4%), washed their hands after using toilets (91.2%), and cleaned their mouths at least once a day (85%). A total of 35% toddlers were stunted. There were significant relationships between family income (p=0.001), drinking breast milk (p=0.000) and other milks (p=0.001), eating habits (p=0.001), handwashing (p=0.035) and oral hygiene habits (p=0.039) with stunting incidence in toddlers (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Family income, consumption of breast milk and other milks, eating habits, and handwashing and oral hygiene habits were associated with stunting in toddlers.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Targeted hand hygiene audits and training: an effective tool for improvement in hand hygiene compliance 2024-02-02T05:38:53+00:00 Ankita Chaurasia Sujit Bharti Vijeta Bajpai Anwita Mishra Avinash Kumar Sharma Ranjeet Singh Rahul Sarode <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hand hygiene (HH) is the simplest, but most effective infection prevention and control measure. This study was aimed to determine HH compliance among health care workers (HCWs) in a cancer hospital and the impact of targeted and phased training over changes in HH compliance and determination of Hawthorne effect among HCWs.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Prospective observational study conducted in two phases by HH trained auditor (Overt observer) and ICN (Covert observer) performing 30 minutes HH audit at ICU, haemato-lymphoid (HL) ward and paediatric ward to observe the pattern of HH compliance among HCW for HH moments and its impact over Hawthorne effect for HH compliance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Highest compliance for HH was observed at HL ward (59.34%) in first phase and at ICU (70.08%) in second phase. Gradual and significant improvement in HH compliance was observed for ICU (52.24% to 70.08%), HL ward (59.34% to 68.48%) and paediatric ward (43.42% to 53.46%). Profession specific Hawthorne effect was observed for nurses with higher compliance in covert observation in first phase and for doctors with higher compliance in overt observation in second phase of the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Regular targeted HH audit with motivational training is the better influential tool for improving HH compliance. Regular audits also improve efficiency of auditor for effective HH compliance supervision. Decentralization and availability of workstation specific HH auditor is the most of effective cost saving approach for achieving significant progressive improvement in HH adherence.</p> 2024-03-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Study of p40 is superior to p63 for the diagnosis of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on cytological smears 2024-03-02T06:00:00+00:00 S. Nageshwar Rao Anuradha Vutukuru K. Durga K. B. Mithila Sailaja V. Vijay Sreedhar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Histology and genetically driven management are the current standard in carcinoma lung. Adequate tissue is a challenge in a few cases. While liquid biopsy is an, it’s an always preferred to get an initial cyto/histo morphological confirmation. While the immune-histo chemistry (IHC) is a proven method to differentiate the squamous vs adeno carcinoma, the role of various “immuno-cyto-chemical” makers were not studied widely.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a retrospective (July 2018 to December 2018) for random sample collection and prospective (Jan 2019-August 2019) study conducted from in the Department of pathology, govt. chest hospital Osmania medical college, Hyderabad as a part of PG dissertation, 120 subjects with cytological diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma were analyzed during this period and others were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 120 cases 80-adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 40-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most of the patients are in 61-70 years, 20 are 71-80 years, 20 between 51-60 and 10 are between 40-50 years. In this study sensitivity of p63 and p40 is equal, but specificity and positive predictive value are higher for p40 for diagnosis of SCC.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Immuno-cyto-chemistry is still a valid option in selected cases where getting a biopsy is difficult. Our findings recommend the use of p40 immuno staining rather than p63 as a squamous cell marker.</p> 2024-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Need analysis for geriatric care services in a tertiary care teaching hospital: a patient perspective analysis 2023-05-24T10:40:03+00:00 Chitra Yathindra Sonia E. D’Souza <p><strong>Background: </strong>In India, aging population is increasing every year. So, healthcare industry needs to set up a geriatric unit soon. Development of geriatrics and old-age care systems in India will make elderly people independent and improve their lifestyle, life expectancy, and quality of life while decreasing the cost of care. This study looks at the views of patients who are 60 years or older, as well as need for a full-fledged geriatric unit in a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study used questionnaires to get information from patients about the need for a geriatric care service in the chosen tertiary care teaching hospital. The study was conducted between March 2022 to July 2022</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Over 96% of the patients opined that elderly patients require a separate health care setup from the regular health care system. The study showed that 69.9% of the patient respondents opined that they require an attendant each time they visit a hospital. Also, 51.6% of the patients did not go to their doctor's appointments because they needed someone to accompany them to the hospital.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>A study shows that older people rely on family members to check out healthcare facilities. If a new geriatric unit has the latest facilities, 96.8% of the patients will take advantage of them. Hence, a well-established geriatric department in the selected hospital is the need of the hour.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A cross-sectional study to assess medical student’s opinions regarding child sexual abuse in an Eastern state of India 2023-10-05T06:00:45+00:00 Ashok Kumar Rastogi Shibajee Debbarma <p><strong>Background:</strong> Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a heinous crime against growing children, which may victimize both genders. It is a pervasive issue that affects societies worldwide. Present study was conducted to gain insights into the opinion and understanding regarding CSA among undergraduate medical students at a premier institution in Bihar, an Eastern state of India. Objectives were to study the distribution of medical students according to opinions regarding CSA and to study the distribution of medical students according to information regarding CSA obtained from parents.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>After obtaining institutional ethical committee (IEC) clearance, a pre-designed structured questionnaire was administered online to undergraduate medical students of the institution who gave consent for study. Collected information was entered in Microsoft excel, and categorical variables were expressed as percentages and proportions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The present study included 312 boys (62.4%) and 186 girls (37.6%). The majority (82.2%) of study participants agreed that boys are also victims of CSA, and the majority (68.3%) agreed with the statement regarding informing a caregiver following an incident. Most (64%) of the study participants had obtained information regarding CSA from parents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Awareness generation is an important measure to curb the growing menace of CSA. Parental education plays a vital role in creating necessary awareness.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Knowledge regarding immunization among mothers of under-five children in Uttarakhand 2023-12-29T06:23:37+00:00 Chandan Kumar Surbhi Bijalwan Askansha Panwar Lumbini Joshi Ishita Aswal Shalini Aswal Priya Gupta Angel Edward Ritika Gusain Tenzin Dhondup Ayush Uniyal Namrata Pundir <p><strong>Background: </strong>Immunization is one of the most impactful and cost-effective health investments globally that helps in reducing the burden of infectious diseases keeping children safe. Mothers are the major role players with regard to their children’s immunization. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge regarding immunization among mothers of under-five children in the Doiwala block of Dehradun, Uttarakhand. A total of one hundred mothers of under-five children were conveniently selected through door-to-door survey. A structured knowledge questionnaire on under-five immunization was administered through the interview technique to assess the knowledge of the mothers.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 100 mothers of under-five children 13% had poor knowledge, 63% had average knowledge and 24% had good knowledge regarding under-five immunization. There was significant association between age, education status and socioeconomic status of mothers with knowledge score regarding under-five immunization.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>There is a strong need to increase awareness and knowledge about immunization among children; its benefits and importance. There is also a need to educate people especially mothers regarding harmful consequences of incomplete immunization of children.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Dermatoglyphic palmar pattern variations in congenitally deaf and mute subjects 2024-01-02T14:45:12+00:00 Rimple Bansal Ruchi Goyal Usha Chhabra Harsimarjit Kaur Gurdeep Singh Kalyan <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dermatoglyphics have the unique merit of retaining all their peculiarities unchanged throughout life, and afford in consequence an incomparably surer criterion of identity than any other bodily feature. The rationale for studying dermatoglyphic features is derived from the fact that development of dermal ridges and congenital deafness seems to develop at around the same time.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The material for the study consisted of palm prints of congenitally deaf and mute children of 100 subjects with congenital deafness and muteness between 5-21 years of age and 50 control of similar age group with normal hearing and speech were chosen. The principal patterns of thenar/ I interdigital, interdigital II, interdigital III, interdigital IV and hypothenar area were noted. Position of axial triradius, ‘atd’ angle, pattern of palmar Flexion Creases, presence as well as pattern of the Simian Line and the Sydney Line were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results: T</strong>he percentage of open field was maximum in subjects in thenar / interdigital area I. and in interdigital area IV. The mean a-b, c-d and atd angle ridge palmar ridge count was less in subjects in comparison to controls. Highly statistically significant results were obtained between subjects and control for the simian crease pattern when both hands were considered together in which the percentage of transitional type was more than the typical simian crease in subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>When combined with other clinical and investigative features, dermatoglyphic study can serve as a diagnostic impression and can be advocated as a useful screening device.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A study on maternal factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practices regarding feeding practices among mothers attending NRC 2024-01-17T08:02:10+00:00 Thulasi M. Madhusudanan Mudassir Azeez Khan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Child under nutrition is the leading cause in more than one third of infant and child death globally especially in developing countries. Various social and environmental factors affect child nutrition and result in under nutrition. Maternal knowledge, their attitude, and practices all can have an effect in changing the child’s nutritional pattern. It is thus essential that mothers have proper knowledge on dietary practices in prevention of malnutrition, which, in turn, can help them to have good attitude toward the dietary practices so that they can change their behaviour and harmful practices.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Information obtained from the mothers of children admitted to nutrition rehabilitation centre (NRC) during the period from January 2020 to June 2021 using the questionnaire with direct interview method. Used a predesigned questionnaire on respective mothers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 42.8% of mothers had an overall good knowledge. 91.96% of mothers had a positive attitude and good practices towards feeding practices of children admitted to NRC.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Education occupation and socio-economic class does not influence the knowledge attitude and practices of mothers regarding feeding practices whereas number of ANC visits has a significant effect.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A survey of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of using probiotics for oral health among dental students in Kerala 2024-01-19T05:33:40+00:00 Gayathri Rajeev Arun Jacob Sandra Santhosh Roshni Anjitha S. Vijayan Reshma Puthukkodan Sangeetha Geetharani Vijayakumar <p><strong>Background:</strong> Widespread prevalence of dental caries, particularly in developing countries, poses a major public health challenge. Traditional approaches using fillings and remineralizing agents have limitations. Probiotics offer a potentially self-administered, multifaceted alternative for both preventing and managing caries, with additional health benefits beyond oral health.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study with a validated questionnaire was conducted among 308 final-year students and 292 interns from dental colleges in Kerala. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Over 74% of interns and final-year students recognized probiotic benefits. Awareness about prebiotics was limited in both groups (59.7% and 62.3%, respectively). Notably, 65.6% of students and 72.6% of interns demonstrated knowledge about the probiotic potential of streptococcus strains. Almost 43% of students and 55% of interns reported current or past probiotic use and recommendations. A substantial majority in both groups (over 87%) expressed willingness to try recommended probiotic products. Notably, 47.4% of final-year students and 44.5% of interns had not used probiotics therapeutically, with gastrointestinal issues being the primary indication for those who did.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> High awareness of probiotics with knowledge gaps in certain areas (e.g., prebiotics) was observed. The majority showed a willingness to utilize probiotics in their practice. Educational interventions focused on these areas could equip dental professionals to provide informed advice and recommendations about probiotics to their patients.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Magnitude and pattern of multimorbidity among adult patients attending a primary care setting in Delhi, India 2024-01-19T11:04:24+00:00 Priyanka Pandey Anita S. Acharya Ananya R. Laskar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Multimorbidity, “the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases”, is an upcoming &amp; less addressed public health challenge for low and middle-income countries undergoing rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. This study was done to estimate the burden &amp; pattern of multimorbidity in adults (≥18 years) in a primary care setting.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2021 to March 2022 at a primary health centre in South Delhi. Data was collected by conducting exit interviews with 510 adult patients using a self-designed, pre-tested interview schedule. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 510 study subjects interviewed, the overall magnitude of multimorbidity was 160 (31.4%). Almost half of the study subjects with multimorbidity had dyads, one-third had triads, and the rest had quadrads multimorbidity patterns. The leading triad was diabetes mellitus+hypertension+heart disease (12.3%), followed by diabetes mellitus+hypertension+chronic lung disease (10.5%). More than half of the study subjects with multimorbidity, 89 (55.6%), suffered from concordant MM.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study revealed that 31.4% of subjects had multimorbidity, which was almost equally distributed across the age groups. The burden was significantly higher among those aged 18-39 years. Hypertension and Heart disease were found to be the most frequent and the most concordant multimorbidity, respectively, associated with Diabetes mellitus.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Assessment of risk factors for hypertension among undergraduate students in a medical college of Himachal Pradesh, India 2024-01-20T05:15:56+00:00 Shamli Pathania Shruti Sharma Sumit Sharma Arvind Kumar Shishu Pal Singh Thakur <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is a commonest cardiovascular disorder and is major cause of premature death worldwide. An estimated 1.28 billion adults aged 30-79 years worldwide have hypertension, most (two-thirds) living in low and middle-income countries. So present study was undertaken to assess the risk factors for hypertension among First year MBBS students so that suitable preventive measures may be undertaken.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It is cross sectional study conducted among first year MBBS students in DRKGMC Hamirpur. The duration of study is three months. The tools of study used were modified structured pretested self-administered questionnaire; WHO stepwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS). Weighing machine, measuring tape, digital BP apparatus and steadiometer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 115 students of MBBS first year participated in the study. There were a total of 31.3% (36) boys and 68.7% (79) girls. Thirty three percent (38) had a family history of hypertension. 16.52% (19) had a BMI more than the normal. Among the study participants only 5 students (4.35%) used to consume alcohol and smoke cigarettes. Most of study participants consume fast food and junk food.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> High prevalence of different modifiable risk factors for hypertension revealed among the study subjects.There is need to screen the modifiable risk factors from very early age.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health COVID-19 vaccination: disease status and outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted in tertiary care hospital in Raigad District of Maharashtra 2024-01-24T09:47:08+00:00 Ratnaprabha B. Pedhambkar Kuldip R. Salgotra Dattatray B. Bhusare <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 pandemic had witnessed serious infections and deaths during third wave of the pandemic. This study was designed to analyse the association between severity of disease and patient outcomes with vaccination status of COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Retrospective record-based study was conducted among 258 COVID-19 patients from August 2021 to January 2022, during the third wave of the pandemic in a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 258 patients, 42% patients were above 60 years of age 19% were in the age group of 18-30 years. 58% male and 42% female patients. Overall, 50% and 36% patients above 40 years had severe and moderate disease respectively. 52% had mild disease in age group of 18-30 years and this was statistically significant with Chi-square value of 38.85 and p&lt;0.05. 36%, 36% and 28% vaccinated patients had severe, moderate and mild disease respectively. 38%, 40% and 23% unvaccinated patients had severe, moderate and mild disease respectively. The mortality rate was 25%, 32% and 50% among vaccinated, unvaccinated and unknown vaccination status respectively. The mortality rate was 44% in those above 60 years. The survival rates were 90% in patients below 40 years. This difference was statistically significant with Chi-square value of 32.16, p&lt;0.005. The mortality rate was 61%, 16% and 2% with severe, moderate and mild disease respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The severity and mortality rate was less in vaccinated patients. This shows that vaccination might be effective in reducing the severity of disease and deaths among COVID-19 patients.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health An evidence-based tuberculosis patient’s nutrition assessment tool and intervention guidelines for DOTS providers: a modified Delphi study 2024-01-24T13:22:37+00:00 Vishwas A. S. Vijayamma Ajmera Yogeshwar Puri Goswami <p><strong>Background: </strong>An individual's nutritional state is an indicator of their overall health. Poor nutrition, under nutrition, vitamin deficiency and protein energy malnutrition a form of nutritional problems. In low and middle-income countries, the linkage between infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and under nutrition is critical to public health. Thus, the current study aims to explore the DOTS Providers' concerns and develop evidence-based tuberculosis patient’s nutrition assessment tool and intervention guidelines for DOTS providers, which can be quick and easy to assess.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A modified Delphi process was used to develop the nutrition assessment tool and intervention guidelines through mixed-method approach. Three rounds of the Delphi process were carried out via email, with a letter requesting to participate in the Delphi process.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> An in-depth interview schedule was conducted to extract themes and subthemes generating an item pool in the initial phase. The main themes identified were Perception of disease, TB cure, Association of under nutrition and TB management, Problems or difficulties encountered, Counsel, Assessment and intervention. Quantitative data analysis was performed manually by calculating the content validity index (CVI). The CVI was found to be &gt;80% for all the items with I-CVI≥0.8 and S-CVI≥0.9. All the items were considered very essential with a score of 1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The assessment tool should be subjected to other levels of evaluation that measures the suitability of the tool and interventional guidelines for the intended field.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A cross-sectional study on knowledge of epidemiological determinants, prevention and management of rabies among MBBS interns of a tertiary health care center of central India 2024-01-30T07:26:12+00:00 Astha Mishra Ashok R. Jadhao Sagar Pandey Kaustubh D. Khetre <p><strong>Background:</strong> According to World Health Organization (WHO), rabies is a vaccine-preventable, zoonotic, viral disease caused by Lyssavirus type 1. It causes 20,000 deaths annually in India. MBBS interns represent the physicians who will graduate and practice medicine from next year. Hence, keeping this in mind, the present study was carried out to assess the knowledge regarding epidemiological determinants, prevention and management of rabies among MBBS interns.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2023 to June 2023 among 200 MBBS interns of Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra. Data was collected by the self-administered, pre-designed, pre-structured questionnaire and was analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was seen that the mean age of participants was 23.34 (±0.859) years. The majority of participants were males (51.5%). The majority (80%) of interns knew the correct causative agent of rabies, while only 40% knew the correct incubation period of rabies. The majority, that is 63.5%, 85.5% and 75% of interns, knew the correct route, site and schedule of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) respectively. Only 26.5% interns knew the correct management of category I animal bites, while 74.5% and 89% knew the correct management of category II and category III animal bites, respectively. The mean total knowledge score among interns was 13.17±2.63.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study found that interns with experience in dealing with animal bite cases had significantly higher total knowledge scores. To improve knowledge, interactive animal bite case-dealing sessions and regular CMEs should be conducted.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Assessing the effect of women’s empowerment on their dietary intake: a cross-sectional study 2024-02-02T07:34:50+00:00 Priyanshu Rastogi Rohit Pandey Sunil Mehra Shantanu Sharma <p><strong>Background:</strong> Women empowerment is an important strategy to reduce maternal and child undernutrition, which continues to be a major health burden in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to assess the effect of women empowerment on their dietary intake in the two selected blocks of Sultanpuri urban slums, West Delhi.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The baseline was conducted using a cross-sectional research method with girls and women (15-35 years). The research was conducted through a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured questionnaire to capture the information on socio-demographic profiles along with knowledge on social skills, self-esteem, and decision-making. The data were collected on the consumption of food groups in the last 24 hours from 2402 girls and women. We employed unadjusted and adjusted step-wise regression models to assess the effect of domains of women empowerment on dietary intake.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median (interquartile range) age of the women was 27 (22-31) years. We found a 0.17-point increase in the dietary diversity score per one-unit increase in the self-esteem score of the women. Similarly, there was a 0.06-unit increase in the dietary diversity score per one-unit increase in the social skills score of the women. The association remained statistically significant even after adjustments for co-variates like age, education status, and socio-economic status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study recommends that focusing on women's empowerment dimensions, particularly social skills, self-esteem, and decision-making power, can be an effective strategy for improving dietary intake among women.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Nutritional status assessment of 6-59 months age children in rural Yadgir, Karnataka state, India 2024-02-02T12:25:19+00:00 Dhanaraj Chittapur Shilpa S. Patil Shruthi Lakshmanappa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Childhood undernutrition contributes to childhood diseases and is a major cause of child mortality in India. According to National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5), 32% under-five children in India were under-weight, and 36% were stunted. In Karnataka, the prevalence of underweight among under-five children was 33% and stunting 35%. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of under five-years children in rural communities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 1887 under-five children from rural Yadgir, Karnataka. Weight and height of children were measured using standard protocols. The World Health Organization (WHO) Anthro software version was used for analyzing data. Children whose Z-scores on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height indices were below -2SD from the median of the WHO reference population were considered as underweight, stunted, and wasted respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result revealed that 53.6% of children were stunted, 39.4% were underweight and 15.3% were wasted. Severe forms of underweight, stunting and wasting were observed among 9.4%, 24.2% and 4% children respectively. The frequency of being underweight and stunted has increased with age, which was accelerated after 6 months and about 34% and 52% of children were underweight and stunted by the age 12-23 months. While wasting was higher among children aged 6-11 (24.2%) months than their counterparts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Special attention is required to reduce nutrition vulnerability among young children (12-24 months). An appropriate strategy needs to be implemented to educate rural mothers on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Knowledge, use and acceptability of menstrual cup: an explorative study among women health professionals in Kerala, India 2024-02-14T15:27:18+00:00 Anjana V. M. Jissa V. T. Mini G. K. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, despite a long history of invention and safety measures, the menstrual cup is not a widely used method of menstrual management among women. As comprehensive evidence on the menstrual cup use is relatively limited in India, this study aimed to describe the knowledge, use, and acceptability of menstrual cup among women health professionals in Kerala, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey among adult menstruating women health professionals. Information on knowledge of menstrual cups, pattern of use and acceptability of menstrual cups, and factors associated with the usage of menstrual cups were collected. Qualitative interviews were also conducted among current, discontinued and non-users of menstrual cup.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 346 women studied, the majority (97%) of the participants were acquainted with menstrual cups. Ever use of a menstrual cup was reported by 34.7% of participants. Currently, women mainly used sanitary pads (73%), followed by the menstrual cup (26%) as the main menstrual hygiene product. The quantitative and qualitative analysis showed a high level of acceptability among users of menstrual cups and perceptible restraints among non-users. Environment safety and affordability were the most appealing factors for menstrual cup use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Nearly a fourth of health professionals in the study were currently using the menstrual cup. A high level of overall knowledge and acceptability among the users of the menstrual cup as seen in the study is likely to motivate and enhance better choice of menstrual products among women in general.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Does nutritional support under programmatic settings result in weight and body mass index changes among tuberculosis patients? Evidence on the impact of nutritional support through Pradhan Mantri Tuberculosis Mukt Bharat Abhiyan under national tuberculosis elimination programme from Ramgarh district of Jharkhand 2024-02-05T09:48:49+00:00 Anupama T. Megha Priyadarshini Swaraj Sinha Smiti Narain Pritam Ghosh Anindya Mitra Ranjit Prasad Mahalaxmi Prasad <p><strong>Background:</strong> To increase community participation in tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts, the government of India has launched ‘Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharath Abhiyan’ (PMTBMBA) under the national TB elimination programme. The scheme allows interested parties (Ni-kshay mitras) to offer nutritional support to TB patients. This study aims to understand the impact of such a support in improving weight and body mass index (BMI) among TB patients as most available evidence comes from research settings.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective cross-sectional study carried out in Ramgarh district of Jharkhand, India, for the period first quarter 2023. Relevant data was extracted from Ni-kshay web portal and TB treatment cards. The data is analyzed using excel 365.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 114 participants, 69 received nutritional support during the entire duration of treatment and 45 received support partially. Single factor ANOVA on weight and BMI gain revealed statistically significant difference in mean weight/BMI between the two groups with F (1, 110)=35.4660, p=3.16×10<sup>-08</sup> and F (1, 110)=22.9994, p=5.12×10<sup>-06</sup>. Correlation analysis showed a moderate correlation between the number of nutritional kits received and the weight/BMI gain with correlation coefficients r=0.5, p=1.07×10<sup>-07</sup> and r=0.4, p=1.65×10<sup>-05</sup> respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concludes that the impact of nutritional supplementation in programmatic setting is comparable with that of implementation research study settings.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health An ambispective observational study on antibiotics in pulmonology department in a tertiary care hospital 2024-02-07T09:46:13+00:00 Nikita Gupta Swetha Singarapu M. Ilham Ahmed Hema Pasupuleti Sameera Fatima <p><strong>Background: </strong>Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) caused by various viruses and bacteria are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although they are usually more severe in children, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems, people of all ages and backgrounds are susceptible to these infections. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for RTIs in primary care in adults and children. The main purpose of this study is to monitor the use of different antibiotics for respiratory infections.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It is an ambispective observational study, during which data are collected on specially designed data collection forms. The study lasted 6 months (from December 2022 to May 2023).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The source of data is a total of 100 patients who were prescribed at least one dose of antibiotics. Out of 100 people, 53% were men and 47% were women. LRTI and URTI are the most common conditions for which antibiotics are prescribed, and we found that the most commonly prescribed antibiotics are a higher percentage of patients using cephalosporins. Of the various cephalosporins, the most commonly prescribed is ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>From this particular observational study, we concluded that the most frequently prescribed antibiotics for respiratory infections were cephalosporins, ceftriaxone, third-generation cephalosporins were most frequently prescribed, followed by macrolides, penicillin, tetracyclines, lincomycin, fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones. The use of antibiotics helps to improve patient care by reducing side effects such as antibiotic resistance, hypersensitivity reactions, respiratory difficulties and risks associated with respiratory infections.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health High diversity in the vaginal microbiome in women following preterm premature rupture of membranes and its effect on fetomaternal outcome 2024-02-07T10:21:45+00:00 Manisha Jhirwal Pratibha Singh Shashank Shekhar Charu Sharma Navdeep Kaur Ghuman Priyanka Kathuria Deepika Bohra <p><strong>Background:</strong> Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) complicates 3% of pregnancies and its associated with adverse perinatal outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a case control study conducted over a period of two years. Our aim was to evaluate the bacterial colonization of genital tract of antenatal patients who presented with preterm premature rupture of membranes and their maternal and neonatal complications. We studied 6023 patients during our study period among which 156 patients presented with preterm premature rupture of membranes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> PPROM was found more commonly among age 25-30 years (46.79%) with p&lt;0.001. Out of 156 pregnant women with PPROM, only 16 patients (10.26%) developed clinical chorioamnionitis. We observed that 43.59% patients (n=68) with PPROM underwent LSCS which was significantly higher than control group (19.93%). Among them 81.41% (n=127) of the patients delivered within 24 hours of admission. Among 156 patients, 94 (59.12%) mothers had babies with birth weight ranging between 1.5-2.5 kg as compared to control group where 30.51% mothers had low birth weight babies. The difference was statistically significant. Approximately 18.24% babies developed respiratory distress syndrome requiring ICU care in study group as compared to 3.03% in control group and the difference was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is important to diagnose the PPROM early and manage the patient until delivery for better outcome. Timely intervention after proper analysis of risk and benefit of early termination helps in reducing adverse perinatal outcomes, reduced NICU admissions and unnecessary interventions for neonates.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Association between leisure time activities and emotional intelligence among school students in Kollam district of South Kerala 2024-02-08T09:29:41+00:00 Vincy Nelson Ajith Kumar Jayachandran Chinchu Sathiavrithan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Leisure activity plays a key role in forming an individual’s physical and mental development. Both leisure-time physical activity and emotional intelligence (EI) are related to health-related quality of life. Objectives were to assess the EI of school children belonging to various boards and to find out whether leisure time activity has association with EI.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 school students belonging to various boards of Kollam district. EI was measured using self-report EI developed by Shuttle et al for-data collection.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 200 subjects, 50 students studying in 9<sup>th</sup> standard belonging to different boards were taken from each school, 146 (73%) of students belonged to nuclear family, 154 (77%) shared their daily events with family. 109 (54%) choose arts as leisure time activity and 91 (45.5%) chose sports, 112 (56%) of the students spend at least one hour in social media and only 55 (27.5%) had a habit of reading newspaper daily. Significant statistical association was found between gender, type of school, sharing events with their parents, leisure time activity and EI (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that leisure activity has significant role in the developing EI of a person. It was found that the government (State syllabus) school children have better EI comparing with other boards and also the students who are good at arts also have good EI.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A comparative study to assess utilization, awareness and perception on importance of mobile based application on pregnancy, birth and new-born care among rural and urban primi gravida mothers of Bellary district 2024-02-08T09:41:26+00:00 Vindhya M. K. <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pregnancy applications are more prevalent than other fitness and health applications. They also utilize immediate connection to seek expert advice and comfort. Recently, apps have emerged as a fresh method for delivering prenatal information that is easily available at the press of a button, for little to no money, at any time, and anywhere.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A total of 50 rural and urban primi gravida mothers were included in the study. Utilization statements and knowledge questionnaire and opinionnaire-Likert scale on perception was used to collect data from sample.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The majority of primi gravida mothers in rural areas, 15 (60%) expressed neutrality, 10 (40%) expressed dissatisfaction, in contrast, majority of primi gravida mothers in urban areas, 22, (88.0%) expressed neutrality, 3 (12.0%) expressed satisfaction. Majority of urban primi gravida mothers (20) had average knowledge and the remaining 5 (20%) had bad knowledge, the majority of 24 (96.0%) had poor knowledge and 1 (4%) had average knowledge, in contrast, the majority of rural primi mothers 20 out of 20 had unfavorable perceptions, with 60 (24%) having somewhat positive perceptions and the majority of 19 (76.0%) having unfavorable perceptions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results showed the urban primi gravida mothers were greatly utilizing mobile based application for maternal and foetal outcome, and rural mothers are not aware of mobile based application for maternal and health services and need to teach on mobile based application so that they utilize all governmental services and schemes.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Assessment of awareness and attitude towards radiation hazards and safety in the general population 2024-02-08T17:20:03+00:00 Ayush Dahiwade Ashita Kalaskar Amit Parate Ritesh Kalaskar <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental radiologists, technicians, and other personnel understand the significance of radiation risks and, consequently, patient safety. It is equally important to know the understanding of patients visiting the hospital,which will assist in identifying gaps in patient education.</p> <p style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Patients (n=300) visiting the outpatient department were given a pre-validated questionnaire form, which consisted of 17 questions distributed separately in order to assess awareness and attitude. The responses collected were statistically analysed.</span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Patients who are literate and have fairly good socioeconomic status are expected to be more aware and concerned about their attitude towards radiation safety and hazards, although fewer illiterate people are also expected to be equally aware and concerned.</span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Despite many efforts by authorities, there seems to be a need to spread more awareness about radiation safety and hazards among the general population, irrespective of their background characteristics and educational status, and thus improve their attitude towards the same.</span></p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Knowledge, attitude and practice about menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent school girls of rural field practice area of tertiary care hospital, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh: a cross-sectional study 2024-02-09T09:58:34+00:00 Kamuni Madhuri Reddy M. A. M. Pasha Afsar Fatima <p><strong>Background:</strong> As the reproduction starts from the puberty and in which most of the girls will be not aware of menstruation and they will lack the knowledge as most of the girls will be in school age group. This study is done to understand their knowledge, attitude and practice on menstruation and menstrual hygiene in school going girls.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A school based cross sectional study was conducted after getting ethics committee clearance during August-September 2023 (2 months) in RHTC field area of Santhiram medical college, Nandyal among high school girls of 8<sup>th</sup>, 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> classes by simple random sampling method with sample size 230, study tool was pre-designed, pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire by interview method collected data and analysed by SPSS 25 version.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study out of 230 participants about 43% were under the age group 13 years, 57.8% were have knowledge on menstruation and 60% were not aware of origin of blood and 76.1% are attending school during the menses, 31% of girls Still feels embarrassing buying pads, 40% don’t attend to perform house activities and sitting at the corner. Only 51.7% are using dustbins for disposal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study results shows that girls have a poor knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding menstruation and menstrual hygiene. There is a gap between knowledge and menstrual hygiene and usage of proper sanitation, school administration and health facilities should conduct awareness programmes on menstrual hygiene.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Behavioural risk-factors of hypertension and its knowledge in rural South India: a cross-sectional study 2024-02-12T07:17:23+00:00 Kavya M. Alalageri Mahesh Murthy B. R. Revathi Arun Kumar <p><strong>Background:</strong> India, a lower middle-income country with a population of more than 1 billion is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition characterized by an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. It is estimated to account for 10.8% of all deaths and 4.6% of all disability-adjusted life years in India. Hence this study is carried out to assess the socio-demographic profile and risk factors associated with hypertension (HTN) in rural India. and to determine the association between risk factors and hypertensive status.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a community-based cross-sectional study in Shivamogga taluk of Karnataka from May-September 2023. Based on 2011 census, Shivamogga taluk has 117601 households bearing population of 507324 and sex-ratio 987 per 1000 males, 36.4% of population lives in urban area and 63.6% in rural area. Ayanur and Matthur are rural field practice area of SIMS having population of 3605 and 3144 respectively. The multi-stage random sampling method is used to study 430 study participants.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study comprised of 430 participants, 162 (37.67%) were among the age group of 50-65 years, 223 (51.86%) were hypertensives and 306 (71.16%) stated that HTN adversely effects health of an individual. 381 (88.6%) opined that reducing salt intake in the diet can significantly reduce the development of HTN in an individual.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> HTN is a behavioural disease that is increasing day by day and there is no much difference between people living in urban/rural areas. Hence, this needs to be addressed at a primitive level to decrease the prevalence of NCD’s by promoting health, adopting healthy lifestyles and adherence towards medications.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Morbidity pattern of communicable diseases in a tertiary care hospital in metropolitan city of western Maharashtra 2024-02-13T07:21:18+00:00 Vrushali V. Kulkarni Nitin I. Gurav Amit M. Yadav Dinesh R. Samel <p><strong>Background:</strong> In India, infectious diseases continue to be predominant with emerging non-communicable diseases, imposing a double burden of diseases on health care system. Hence, the tertiary health care hospital-based study was done to compare the morbidity pattern of communicable diseases with respect to non-communicable diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A 2 years’ record-based data of admitted patients was collected in a tertiary health care hospital. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel version 365. Significance of association and difference in proportions has been checked with chi-square test and Z test for SEDP respectively at significance level of 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the study period of two years, 6818 patients were admitted in the hospital, of which 74.51% suffered from communicable diseases while 25.49% suffered from other types of disease including non-communicable diseases. Of the 5080, patients with communicable diseases, 57.74% were males and 42.26% were females. Communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases had male predominance (p&lt;0.05) and was higher amongst age group 0-15 years (p&lt;0.05). Hospital stay was prolonged in patients suffering from communicable disease (p&lt;0.05). Significant increased difference was found in AFI, Malaria, Dengue and in Leptospirosis prevalence and significant decreased difference was found in acute gastroenteritis, IV, Covid-19, Respiratory infections and enteric fever (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Communicable diseases continue to be a major threat to public health system in India. Through effective surveillance programmes, any change in trends of disease can be identified and suitable measures can be adapted to control and prevent it.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Uptake of fIPV3 and implementation challenges as perceived by auxiliary nurse midwives at two primary healthcare centers in urban Bengaluru: a mixed-method study 2024-02-14T13:06:40+00:00 Kashvi Bijavara Krishnappa Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Sangeetha M. D. Sreenath Menon P. K. <p><strong>Background:</strong> India introduced fractional-dose inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) into its routine immunization program as part of the polio eradication and endgame strategic plan. The study aimed to assess the uptake of the 3rd dose of fIPV among eligible beneficiaries and explore the implementation challenges perceived by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) at two primary healthcare centers in urban Bengaluru.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A mixed-method study was conducted between April and May 2023. A cross-sectional design was used for quantitative objectives, while in-depth interviews were conducted with ANMs for qualitative insights. Data were collected through vaccination registers, questionnaires, and key informant interviews. The study population included all eligible beneficiaries for the 3rd dose of fIPV from January to March 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 296 eligible beneficiaries, 139 (47%) had received the 3rd dose of fIPV. The challenges faced by ANMs in fIPV3 implementation included difficulties in recording and reporting activities, fear of managing adverse events, lack of confidence in administering intradermal injections, obtaining consent from parents, inadequate training, and concerns about vaccine wastage and increased workload.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The uptake of fIPV3 was suboptimal, and ANMs encountered several challenges during implementation. To enhance fIPV3 integration into the vaccination schedule, the health system needs to improve awareness among the community, strengthen health worker capacity, and provide better training and support. Strengthening routine immunization programs can contribute to sustained polio eradication efforts.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Nadifit, data-driven diagnosis: a clinical study for evaluating the significance of traditional Chinese medicine organ patterns through pulse diagnosis (nadi pariksha) for accurate pathology predictions 2024-02-15T06:23:37+00:00 Manjunatha Y. C. Raghu B. Pavan Kumar Y. C. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pulse diagnosis or nadipariksha, is a traditional diagnostic technique utilized in ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine, analyzing various pulse characteristics such as force, patterns, rate, and rhythm to discern underlying health conditions. This method integrates TCM's five-element energy levels and Ayurveda's Tridosha levels to accurately identify the root cause of diseases, enabling practitioners to tailor treatments accordingly. In today's fast-paced world, the need for efficient health monitoring is imperative. However, finding expert practitioners proficient in pulse diagnosis is becoming increasingly challenging, necessitating the development of systems capable of providing personalized health insights based on accurate root-cause analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, we compared predicted symptoms derived from objective TCM organ pattern analysis using the Nadifit pulse diagnosis system with subjective clinical assessments of patients' symptoms. TCM organ patterns were determined based on the combination of five elements and their Yin/Yang energy levels. Pulse signals were collected from 105 individuals and compared with clinical evaluations of patients' symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis revealed a high level of agreement between the clinical assessment of symptoms and the predicted organ patterns, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.82. This suggests that objective pulse analysis effectively identifies root causes, aligning with subjective assessments.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings of this study underscore the validity and reliability of objective pulse analysis in diagnosing health conditions. By demonstrating significant agreement with subjective clinical assessments, this method provides a promising avenue for enhancing diagnostic accuracy and facilitating personalized treatment strategies based on individual health profiles.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Faces of tuberculosis: a riveting exploration into demographics and health profiles of patients in rural Jharkhand 2024-02-15T09:56:45+00:00 Putul Bagti Bharath Jagadeesh Neelima Tirkey <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis is a pressing health concern in Jharkhand, India, claiming 13,000 lives annually. This retrospective study, conducted by Tata steel foundation, delves into the health and sociodemographic profiles of TB patients in the tribal-dominated East Singhbhum district. Noteworthy findings include risk factors such as Anaemia, Diabetes compounded by challenges like limited access to health facilities. TSF's initiatives, including Nikshay Mitra and support for NTEP, are crucial components in addressing TB in the region.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective study (September to November 2023) analyzed records from TSF's DOTS centre in East Singhbhum. Data from 2019-2023 were extracted and analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average age of 293 patients was 37.36±14.97 years, with 83.6% belonging to Scheduled Tribes. Sputum analysis revealed a 61.4% positive rate for Acid Fast Bacillus. Notably, 85.3% completed treatment, and abnormal chest radiographs were observed in 99.3% of cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The proposed way forward outlines actionable strategies to further strengthen TB awareness, focus on challenging districts, engage communities, and collaborate with government health centers. Regular research and monitoring, coupled with periodic impact assessments, will be crucial for adapting and refining interventions in alignment with the dynamic landscape of TB prevalence.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Exploring the dynamics of menstrual health and hygiene management among adolescent girls in rural schools of Mysuru district, Karnataka 2024-02-19T07:31:14+00:00 Amoghashree Rashmi Shivalinge Gowda Sunil Kumar Doddaiah <p><strong>Background:</strong> Poor knowledge and poor practice in menstrual health and hygiene management results in unhealthy practices which in turn impacts on overall health of the girl child resulting in increased reproductive tract infection and inhibiting the girl’s scholastic performance.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A school based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3 randomly selected rural schools. Adolescent girls in 8th to 10th standards, who have attained menarche, were included in the study and surveyed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge, perception and practices related to menstrual health and hygiene management. Data was analyzed using SPSS v22 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age was 14.32(±0.98) years and mean age at menarche was 12.74 (±1.11) years. 51.6% knew about menstruation at menarche. 57.5% knew about sanitary pad, 21.6% knew that hormones as the reason for menstruation and 5.2% marked uterus as the organ responsible for menstruation. 63.4% of the participants perceived that menstruation is a normal &amp; healthy part of life. 83.7% were using sanitary pad, 25.5% flush the menstrual material in the toilet as a disposal method.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> 21.6% of the participants were found to have good knowledge about menstruation, 63.4% of the participants feel that menstruation is a normal &amp; healthy part of life and 83.7% use sanitary pads. Hence this study emphasizes the need of educating the adolescent girls regarding MHHM.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Prevalence of pre-diabetes and its associated risk factors among people in rural field practice area of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore 2024-02-21T11:13:29+00:00 Achuth K. S. Mangala Subramanian Pradeep C. <p><strong>Background:</strong> India harbours a significant diabetic population, with over 60 million adults affected, a substantial proportion of whom remain undiagnosed or untreated, elevating the risk of complications and premature mortality. Identifying prediabetes and advocating lifestyle modifications become imperative in such a scenario. This research aimed to gauge the prevalence of prediabetes and associated factors among adults in the rural field practice area of Vydehi institute of medical sciences and research centre, Bengaluru.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study targeted individuals above 30 years in Vydehi institute of medical sciences and research centre's rural field practice area. A house-to-house survey screened for prediabetes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 895 subjects, 128 (14.3%) exhibited prediabetic conditions. Prediabetes was notably prevalent in the 36-40 age group (18.8%), with 52.3% being males. A majority (77.4%) lacked a family history of diabetes, and 62.5% belonged to the lower-middle class. Sedentary lifestyles were prevalent (83.6%), with 83.6% consuming mixed diets. Elevated BMI was common, and a statistically significant association existed between BMI, waist circumference, and prediabetes (p&lt;0.05). Similarly, education level significantly correlated with blood glucose control (p&lt;0.01). Merely 7.0% of subjects were aware of prediabetes, mainly through health personnel.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study highlights a high prediabetes prevalence, coupled with low awareness and knowledge of blood sugar control. It underscores the necessity for strategic screening and intervention programs in the community to forestall prediabetes progression to diabetes.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health A study on nutritional status of preschool children and knowledge with special references to breastfeeding practice in urban area 2024-02-27T14:55:52+00:00 Shrikant S. Birajdar Jayalekshmi C. S. Bhimrao S. Jadhav Ajit S. Nagaonkar <p><strong>Background: </strong>The nutritional status of preschool children is a critical indicator of their overall health and development. Breastfeeding provides best start of life to babies as well as improves the health of mothers and babies. Objectives were to assess the nutritional status of preschool children and to Investigate the impact of breastfeeding practices on children’s nutritional outcomes and breastfeeding practices of their mothers.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum area and involved a sample of preschool children aged 3 to 6 years. Complete enumeration of children of 3-6 years age group was done. Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements, including height, weight and mid upper arm circumference. Data on breastfeeding practices were collected through structured interviews. Data was analysed using MS excel and chi-square statistical tests was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 334 study participants of which 7.5% had stunting and 62.87% were underweight. It was found that 18.56% had history of low birth weight. 90.12% were exclusively breastfed and breastfeeding was continued up to 2 years for 28.14% and more than 2 years for 71.86% children. It was also found that history of low birth weight of children is significantly associated with malnourishment (p≤0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study revealed that a substantial proportion of preschool children in the urban area were experiencing malnutrition. The breastfeeding practices were fair among the mothers of the children. Targeted education and awareness programs to enhance the nutrition can improve the overall health of preschool children in the urban setting.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Haddon’s matrix for spectrum of road-related major injuries in rural adolescents: a case series analysis 2024-02-02T06:58:12+00:00 Bratati Banerjee Rupsa Banerjee <p>Unintentional injuries in children pose public health threat that often leads to serious consequences in the child and the family, especially in case of major injuries. Prevention strategies need to be worked out for all injuries, particularly for major injuries which cause considerable disability and mortality. We present three road-related major injury events which had occurred during the entire period of a larger study, which have been analyzed using the Haddon’s matrix through an epidemiological tetrad model involving host, vector, physical environment and socio-economic environment. Intervention strategies for prevention of similar injuries in future have been outlined at various time points for each case, as well as general measures, in various levels of care. Of the three major road-related injury cases (12 years, female; 17 years, female; and 17 years, male), two were automobile accidents in 17 years old adolescents and one was a case of injury of a 12-year-old girl due to fall on road. Risk factors were present in all three cases related to host, vector, physical environment and socio-economic environment. Strategies for prevention have been outlined at various time points i.e. pre-event, event, post-event at various levels for each case, as well as intervention strategies that can be implemented in general by the individual, family, community including panchayat, and both State and National governments. All major road-related injuries and their complications that occurred in subjects of the present study could have been prevented by taking responsibility at various levels.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Perspectives of healthcare workers on chemotherapy treatment in selected facilities in Kenya 2024-01-26T09:29:07+00:00 Nebert Mchidi John Oyore Gordon Ogweno <p>Healthcare workers are better placed to recognize the drivers of the cancer health care experience by patients, an important ingredient in shaping the realization of the third pillar of the Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy. To adequately assess health systems and identify bottlenecks in cancer care, a triumvirate of factors including patient, health system, and health workforce need to be considered. For context, Kenya’s health ministry reports that 70-80% of cancer patients in Kenya are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease, a pointer to a gap in the detection and linkage of cancer patients to care. With increasing cancer incidence, cancer treatment centres will experience increased patient loads and will be overwhelmed in addressing individualized patient needs. Health workers can offer information on what the cancer care situation is currently like, and lessons drawn from their experience used to create adequate health systems. An adequate health system has been fashioned as one that not only address patients' needs but also generates adequate information needed to inform the transformation of those systems in line with the goals contemplated in quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore (i) the perspectives of health workers on the characteristics of cancer patients seen in treatment facilities and (ii) the capacity of cancer treatment facilities in the management of cancer. A key informant approach using semi-structured interviews was carried out with sampled respondents consisting of health workers (n=12) in selected facilities who were providing outpatient chemotherapy treatment. Data analysis involved transcribing the interviews into first-person narratives and then analysed using the three-dimensional framework. Subsequently, thematic analysis was applied to generate<strong> </strong>themes.<strong> </strong>Data analysis generated three main themes: characteristics of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment, capacity of the facility to manage cancer patients, and factors that hinder effective cancer care provision. Cancer care in Kenya is impeded by poverty, staff shortages, and lack of adequate cancer care. There is a need to reorient cancer care with an emphasis on integrated cancer care delivery modalities.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Ayurvedic management for hypertension with micro albuminuria: a case report 2024-01-02T10:10:38+00:00 Renjumol V. S. <p>Hypertension is a non-communicable disease in which the pressure of blood pushing against the arterial walls becomes high. In chronic stage it leads to severe systemic diseases, which affects heart, kidney, lung etc. The main causative factors are unhealthy food and lifestyle, stress, smoking, Alcohol, obesity and hereditary. Microalbuminuria in Hypertension is an early sign of kidney damage and is considered as a predictor for the end stage of renal disease and cardiovascular disease. So, it is of great importance to manage microalbuminuria or high urine albumin creatinine ratio and progression of kidney disease in hypertensive patient. In Ayurveda references no proper description of hypertension is available. By viewing the pathogenesis and physiology, it is formed by the involvement of Tridoshas, Srotorodha, and Dhatudushti. The present case is a 60-year male patient was diagnosed uncontrolled hypertension with microalbuminuria, admitted for 1month, presented with complaints such as frothy urine, over tiredness, uncontrolled anger and increased blood pressure during evening time, not controlled by hypertensive modern medicines. His urine albumin-creatinine ratio was 106.98 mg/dl of creatinine, microalbumin in urine 138 mg/dl and uric acid was 11.5 mg/dl. He was advised the internal Ayurveda medicines, diet restriction and yogic breathing exercise. Within one month of treatment the urine albumin creatinine ratio and uric acid was reduced and became normal. His blood pressure also became controlled and recovered all symptoms. Ayurvedic treatment module appears to be safe and efficacious with early recovery and better outcomes in this case.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Unveiling the unusual: a fatal case of brucellosis with multi-organ involvement 2024-01-30T07:22:17+00:00 Hiba Sami Haleema Ahmad Lubna Zafar Luakik Varshney K. Gururaj Parvez A. Khan Nazish Fatima Haris M. Khan <p>Brucellosis in humans is one of the most common zoonoses. The infection is caused by various species of <em>Brucella</em> bacteria. Brucella infections frequently affect several organ systems with vague clinical symptoms. Humans typically acquire brucellosis through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products like unpasteurized dairy. It poses significant clinical challenges due to its varied presentation. The disease manifests with a range of nonspecific symptoms including fever, sweating, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, and loss of appetite. Brucellosis can also affect various organs such as the liver, spleen, heart, and nervous system. Diagnosis often involves blood cultures, serological tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the bacteria or antibodies produced by the immune system. This case report presents the clinical course of patient X, a 58-year-old female who succumbed to death following an unusual presentation of brucellosis. Despite initial diagnostic challenges, the identification of <em>Brucella melitensis</em> in her blood marked a critical turning point. The case highlights the importance of considering Brucellosis in patients with persistent fever and multi-organ involvement, emphasizing the need for early recognition and appropriate management.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health Dirofilariasis presenting as subcutaneous nodule: a case report and review of literature 2024-02-02T18:13:46+00:00 Priteshkumar D. Vaishnav Chitralekha Nayak Aparna Joshi Amit Kalangutkar <p>Dirofilariasis is an emerging rare zoonotic disease in which man is a dead-end host and it is transmitted by mosquitoes. The cases of dirofilariasis are increasing over the past few years. Several species of the genera <em>Culex spp., Aedes spp., </em>and <em>Anopheles spp.</em> are involved in the transmission of this parasite. These species represent a constant risk of infection because they feed on both animal and human hosts. For this reason, dirofilariasis is considered an emerging public health problem because of its zoonotic potential. Most of the cases are ocular and subcutaneous presentations are rare. Here, we present a rare case of dirofilariasis presenting as a subcutaneous swelling near the knee joint. Dirofilariasis should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodule. In endemic areas, it can present in atypical forms like rash similar to this case; therefore, clinicians should be aware about this disease.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health