Post COVID health effects on patients discharged from tertiary COVID care hospital of Southern Rajasthan, India: a cross-sectional study
Keywords:Post COVID effects, Discharged patients, COVID care hospital
Background: The World Health Organization declared the 2019-20 Coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30th January 2020 and a pandemic on 11th March 2020. It has been creating havoc and a sense of serious insecurity and panic like situation. After recovery patient remain at risk of lung disease, heart disease, and mental health disorders. There have been long term sequelae of adverse effects. This study is being conducted as of now there is limited evidence of post-COVID sequelae as well as the initial psychological impact of COVID-19 is known and further research is required in this topic.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on patients of a teaching hospital in south Rajasthan. Along with socio-demographic proforma, impact of event scale-revised (IES-R Scale) was used to collect the sociodemographic details and psychological impact on patients after they recovered from the disease. Chi-square test was used to find out statistical significance.
Results: A total of 153 patients were taken for analysis. Fever followed by breathing difficulty was found to be most common post COVID physical symptoms. IES-R scale had significant associations with age group, co-morbid condition, smoking and alcohol intake.
Conclusions: During the initial phase of pandemic, India presented with a high prevalence of post COVID health effects along with a psychiatric sequela. Considering this as an alarming impact, it is suggested to routinely monitor the patients even after discharge from the hospitals.
Deaths, fear of Covid-19 creating anxiety, but there is social support. Available at: http://www.news18.com/ neg-people-but-there-is-social-support-2599191.html. Accessed on February 2021.
Grover S, Dua D. Why all covid-19 hospitals should have mental health professionals.the importance of mental health in worldwide crises!, Asian J Psychiat. 51;102147.
Bohwald K, Galvez NMS, Rios M. Neurologic alterations due to respiratory virus infections. Front. Cell Neurosci. 2018;12:386.
Peiris JS, Lai ST, Poon LL., 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361;1319-25.
Rogers JP, Chesney E, Oliver D, Pollak TA, McGuire P, Fusar-Poli P, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiat. 2020;7(7):611-627.
Cheng SK, Wong CW, Tsang J, Wong KC. Psychological distress and negative appraisals in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Psychol Med. 2004;34(7):1187-95.
Troyer EA, Kohn JN, Hong S. Are we facing a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19? Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:34-9.
SharfranR, CoughtreyA, Whittal M. 2020. Recognizing and addressing the impact of COVID-19 on obsessive compulsive disorder. Lancet Psychiat. 2018;7:570-2.
Creamer M, Bell R, Failla S. Psychometric properties of impact of the event scale- revised. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41:1489-96.
Desforges M, Le coupanec A, Dubeau, P. Human coronavirus and other respiratory viruses: underestimated opportunistic pathogens of the centrl nervous system?. Viruses. 2019;12.
Dantzer R. Neuroimmune interactions: from the brain to the immune system and vice versa. Physiol Rev. 2007;98:477-504.
Parshley L. The emerging long-term complications of Covid-19, explained. Vox. 2020.
D'Ambrosio A. COVID-19 sequelae can linger for weeks. Med Page Today. 2020.
Belluck P. Some Survivors of Covid-19 Face slew of challenges after hospitalization. Physiol Rev. 2020;5: 6.
Tenforde MW, Kim SS, Lindsell CJ. Symptom duration and risk factors for delayed return to usual health among outpatients with 744 Weerahandi. MMWR. 2020;69(30):993-8.
Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019. https://www.who.int/ docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2021.
Needham DM, Davidson J, Cohen H. Improving long-term outcomes after discharge from intensive care unit: report from a stakeholders conference. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(2):502-9
Rawal G, Yadav S, Kumar R. Post-intensive Care Syndrome: an Overview. J Transl Int Med. 2017;5(2):90-2.
Weerahandi H, Hochman KA, Simon E, Blaum C, Chodosh J, Duan E, et al. Post-discharge health status and symptoms in patients with severe COVID-19. medRxiv. 2020;14:742.
Vugts MAP, Joosen MCW, van der Geer JE, Zedlitz AMEE, Vrijhoef HJM. The effectiveness of various computer-based interventions for patients with chronic pain or functional somatic syndromes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0196467.