Prevalence of post COVID-19 syndrome
Keywords:Corona-virus, COVID-19, Fatigue, Indian, Myalgia, Post COVID-19 syndrome
Background: Post COVID-19 syndrome is a condition where symptoms from the acute infection continue to persist after several weeks of testing negative on RT-PCR. It has been divided into 2 stages- post-acute and post chronic COVID-19, where symptoms continue to persist after 3 and 12 weeks respectively. The most common are fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, myalgia, chest pain, headache, concentration problems, etc. Different treatment techniques like breathing exercises, strengthening and stretching as well as cardiovascular endurance exercises can be given to improve their quality of life.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 COVID-19 survivors who are in the time-span of more than 3 weeks after testing negative on RT-PCR. A validated questionnaire was circulated via online platforms. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Data analysis showed that there was a 39.33% prevalence of post COVID-19 syndrome among the Indian population. The standard deviation of age was 33.96±13.954. It is found that high levels of fatigue (28.2%), myalgia (12.9%), cough (10.3%), headache (7.7%) and breathlessness (7.7%) still exist post 3 weeks of COVID-19 infection. In the case of post 12 weeks of COVID-19 infection, symptoms like fatigue (19%), avascular necrosis of femur (AVN) (12.6%), arthralgia (10.8%), myalgia (9%), problems with concentration (9%) and brain fog (7.2%) still persist.
Conclusions: The study confirms the occurrence of long-term COVID-19 effects in the Indian population, and a 39.33% prevalence of post COVID-19 syndrome.
Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC. Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA. 2020;324(8):782-93.
Ng TSB, Leblanc K, Yeung DF, Tsang TSM. Medication use during COVID-19: Review of recent evidence. Can Fam Phys. 2021;67(3):171-9.
Yelin D, Wirtheim E, Vetter P, Kalil AC, Bruchfeld J, Runold M, et al. Long-term consequences of COVID-19: research needs. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(10):1115-7.
Raveendran AV, Jayadevan R, Sashidharan S. Long COVID: an overview. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2021;15(3):869-75.
Kabi A, Mohanty A, Mohanty AP, Kumar S. Post COVID-19 syndrome: a literature review. J Adv Med Med Res. 2020;32(24):289-95.
Van den Borst B, Peters JB, Brink M, Schoon Y, Bleeker-Rovers CP, Schers H, et al. Comprehensive health assessment 3 months after recovery from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(5):e1089-98.
Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Gu X, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-32.
Navarro AO, Cervantes-Bojalil J, Quevedo OD, Martínez AA, Hernández-Jiménez CA, Álvarez EP, et al. Decreased quality of life and spirometric alterations even after mild-moderate COVID-19. Respir Med. 202;181:106391.
Goërtz YM, Van Herck M, Delbressine JM, Vaes AW, Meys R, Machado FV, et al. Persistent symptoms 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 infection: the post-COVID-19 syndrome? ERJ Open Res. 2020;6(4).
Halpin SJ, McIvor C, Whyatt G, Adams A, Harvey O, McLean L, et al. Postdischarge symptoms and rehabilitation needs in survivors of COVID‐19 infection: a cross‐sectional evaluation. J Med Virol. 2021;93(2):1013-22.
Sykes DL, Holdsworth L, Jawad N, Gunasekera P, Morice AH, Crooks MG. Post-COVID-19 symptom burden: what is long-covid and how should we manage it? Lung. 2021;199(2):113-9.
Kamal M, Abo Omirah M, Hussein A, Saeed H. Assessment and characterization of post-COVID-19 manifestations. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(3):e13746.
Galal I, Hussein AA, Amin MT, Saad MM, Zayan HE, Abdelsayed MZ, et al. Determinants of persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms: value of a novel COVID-19 symptom score. Egypt J Bronchol. 2021;15(1):1-8.
Cipollaro L, Giordano L, Padulo J, Oliva F, Maffulli N. Musculoskeletal symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients. J Orthop Surg Res. 2020;15(1):178.
Abdullahi A, Candan SA, Abba MA, Bello AH, Alshehri MA, Afamefuna Victor E, et al. Neurological and musculoskeletal features of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Neurol. 2020;11:687.
Mayer KP, Steele AK, Soper MK, Branton JD, Lusby ML, Kalema AG, et al. Physical therapy management of an individual with post-COVID syndrome: a case report. Phys Ther. 2021;101(6):pzab098.
Taboada M, Moreno E, Cariñena A, Rey T, Pita-Romero R, Leal S, et al. Quality of life, functional status, and persistent symptoms after intensive care of COVID-19 patients. Br J Anaesth. 2021;126(3):e110-3.
Halpin S, O'Connor R, Sivan M. Long COVID and chronic COVID syndromes. J Med Virol. 2021;93(3):1242-3.
Ceban F, Ling S, Lui LM, Lee Y, Gill H, Teopiz KM, et al. Fatigue and cognitive impairment in post-COVID-19 syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2022;101:93-135.
Delbressine JM, Machado FV, Goërtz YM, Van Herck M, Meys R, Houben-Wilke S, et al. The impact of post-COVID-19 syndrome on self-reported physical activity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(11):6017.
Seeßle J, Waterboer T, Hippchen T, Simon J, Kirchner M, Lim A, et al. Persistent symptoms in adult patients 1 year after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;74(7):1191-8.
Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F. Gemelli against COVID-19 post-acute care study group. Persistent symptoms in patients after acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;324(6):603-5.
Arnold DT, Hamilton FW, Milne A, Morley AJ, Viner J, Attwood M, et al. Patient outcomes after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and implications for follow-up: results from a prospective UK cohort. Thorax. 2021;76(4):399-401.
Jimeno-Almazán A, Pallarés JG, Buendía-Romero Á, Martínez-Cava A, Franco-López F, Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez BJ, et al. Post-COVID-19 syndrome and the potential benefits of exercise. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5329.
Sathyamurthy P, Madhavan S, Pandurangan V. Prevalence, pattern and functional outcome of post COVID-19 syndrome in older adults. Cureus. 2021;13(8).
Naik S, Haldar SN, Soneja M, Mundadan NG, Garg P, Mittal A, Desai D, Trilangi PK, Chakraborty S, Begam NN, Bhattacharya B. Post COVID-19 sequelae: a prospective observational study from Northern India. Drug Discov Ther. 2021;15(5):254-60.
Agarwala SR, Vijayvargiya M, Pandey P. Avascular necrosis as a part of ‘long COVID-19’. BMJ Case Rep. 2021;14(7):e242101.
Yong SJ. Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome: putative pathophysiology, risk factors, and treatments. Infect Dis (Lond). 2021;53(10):737-54.
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Palacios-Ceña D, Gómez-Mayordomo V, Florencio LL, Cuadrado ML, Plaza-Manzano G, et al. Prevalence of post-COVID-19 symptoms in hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Intern Med. 2021;92:55-70.