Influencing factors for the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) exposed in environmental matrices and disinfection methods: systematic review
Keywords:SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, Persistence/exposed, Influencing factors (temperature/humidity/pH), Environmental Matrices (air/water/faeces/fomite/surfaces), Disinfection methods
Since the COVID-19 pandemic has been pestilential over a considerable duration, global deployment and financial crisis could not be reversed as before. It brought up essentials to allow the nations back to work with effective preventive measures. This review intended to evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) exposed in the environmental matrices, influencing factors on the virus persistence and disinfection methods. Applying the PRISMA 2009 tool, MEDLINE/PubMed, HINARI, and Google Scholar were primarily explored. Data were extracted, entered into the modified data extraction forms and analysed narratively. Quality appraisal was done by the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. The findings were presented descriptively. Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 was revealed <4 hours on aluminium, 4 hours on copper, 24 hours on cardboard, 44 hours on glass, 48 hours on stainless steel, 72 hours on plastic, 92 hours on polystyrene plastic, 1.1-1.2 hours in the air, 7 days (higher titer) to 3 days (lower titer) in wastewater. Virus decaying was noted 5-10 times faster at 27°C than at 10°C and 2-5 times faster with 65% relative humidity (RH) than with 40% and 100% RH. Virus infectivity was reduced by far-UVC (222 nm) light for 90% (8 minutes), 95% (11 minutes), 99% (16 minutes) and 99.99% (25 minutes). Sodium hypochlorite (800 g/m3) and ammonium-based detergents were remarkably effective for preliminary disinfection. This review identified the duration of SARS-CoV-2 survival in environmental matrices for both healthcare and non-healthcare settings. The study explored the impacts of environmental factors on the virus and effective disinfection methods to be considered accordingly to the findings.
Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): The Epidemic and the Challenges. Int Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3).
Woolhouse MEJ, Adair K. The Diversity of Human RNA viruses. Futrue Virol. 2013;8(2):159-71.
Yezli S, Otter JA. Minimum Infective Dose of the Major Human Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Transmitted Through Food and the Environment. Fod Environ Virol. 2011;3:1-30.
Firquet S, Beaujard S, Lobert PE, Sané F, Caloone D, Izard D, et al. Survival of Enveloped and Non-Enveloped Viruses on Inanimate Surfaces. Microbes Environ. 2015;30(2):140-4.
World Health Organization (WHO). Contact Tracing in the Context of Covid-19. COVID-19: Surveillance, Case Investigation and Epidemiological Protocols 2020a. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/contact-tracing-in-the-context-ofcovid-19.
World Health Organization (WHO). Modes of Transmission of Virus Causing Covid-19: Implications for IPC Precaution Recommendations. Scientific Brief 2020b. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/ detail/modes-oftransmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precautionrecommendations.
van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl Med. 2020;382:1564-7.
Cheng VCC, Wong SC, Chen JHK, Yip CCY, Chuang VWM, Tsang OTY, et al. Escalating Infection Control Response to the Rapidly Evolving Epidemiology of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Epub. 2020;41(5):493-8.
Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W. Seilmaier M, Zange S, Müller MA, et al. Clinical presentation and Virological Assessment of Hospitalized Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Travel-associated Transmission Cluster, Infectious Diseases (except HIV/AIDS). medRxiv: Preprint; 2020.
Gundy PM, Gerba CP, Pepper IL. Survival of Coronavirus in Water and Wastewater. Food Environ Virol. 2009;1(1):10.
Zhao J, Eisenberg JE, Spicknall IH, Li S, Koopman JS. Model Analysis of Fomite mediated Influenza Transmission. PloS ONE. 2012;7(12).
World Health Organization (WHO) Cleaning and disinfection of environment surfaces in context of Covid-19. WHO, Switzerland 2020c. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/cleaning-and-disinfection-of-environmental-surfaces-inthe-context-of-covid-19.
Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MSY, et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA. 2020;323:1610-2.
Sharma A, Preece B, Swann H, Fan X, McKenney RJ, Ori-McKenney KM, et al. Structural Stability of SARS-CoV-2 Degrades with Temperature. BioRxiv preprint; 2002.
Bivins A, Greaves J, Fischer R, Yinda KC, Ahmed W, Kitajima M, et al. Persistence of SARS-CoV - 2 in Water and Wastewater. Environmental Science and Technology Letters Article ASAP; 2020.
Buonanno M, Welch D, Shuryak I, Brenner DJ. Far-UVC Light (222 nm) Efficiently and Safely Inactivates Airborne Human Coronaviruses. Scientific Reports; 2020.
Takeda Y, Uchiumi H, Matsuda S, Ogawa H. Acidic Electrolyzed Water Potently Inactivates SARS-CoV-2 depending on the Amount of Free Available Chlorine Contacting with the Virus. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications. 2020;530:1-3.
Redmond SN, Dousa KM, Jones LD, Li DF, Cadnum JL, Navas ME, et al. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2) nucleic acid contamination of surfaces on a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ward and intensive care unit. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology. 2020;1-3.
Peyrony O, Ellouze S, Fontaine JP, Thegat-Le Cam M, Salmona M, Feghoul L, et al. Surfaces and equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the emergency department at a university hospital. International J Hygiene Environmental Health; 2020.
Simmons SE, Carrion R, Alfson KJ, Staples HM, Jinadatha C, Jarvis WR, et al. Deactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light: Implications for environmental COVID-19 control. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2020;1-4.
Baluja A, Arines J, Vilanova R, Cortiñas J, Bao-Varela C, Flores-Arias MT. UV light dosage distribution over irregular respirator surfaces. Methods and implications for safety. medRxiv preprint; 2020.
Kyle CJ, Crozier D, Dhawan A, Dinh MN, Emily, Farrokhian N, et al. U V Sterilization of Personal Protective Equipment with IdleLaboratory Biosafety Cabinets During the COVID-19 Pandemic. medRxiv preprint; 2020.
Rathnasinghe R, Karlicek RF, Schotsaert M, Koffas MA, Arduini B, Jangra S, et al. Scalable, effective, and rapid decontamination of SARSCoV-2 contaminated N95 respirators using germicidal ultra-violet C (UVC) irradiation device. medRxi preprint; 2020.
Zhang D, Ling H, Huang X, Li J, Li W, Yi C, et al. Potential Spreading Risks and Disinfection Challenges of Medical Wastewater by the Presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA in Septic Tanks of Fangcang Hospital. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;741.
Monge FA, Jagadesan P, Bondu V, Donabedian PL, Ista L, Chi EY, et al. Highly Effective Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Conjugated Polymers and Oligomer. medRxiv preprint; 2020.
Ikner LA, Torre JR, Gundy PM, Gerba CP. A Continuously Active Antimicrobial Coating effective against Human Coronavirus 229E. preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv; 2020.
Arora S, Nag A, Rajpal A, Tiwari SB, Sethi J, Sutaria D, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in fourteen wastewater treatment systems in Uttarakhand and Rajasthan States of North India. medRxiv preprint; 2020.
Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of Coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hospital Infection. 2020;104:246-51.
Tang S, Mao Y, Jones RM, Tan Q, Ji JS, Li N, et al. Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence, Prevention and Control. Environmental Int. 2020;114.
La Rosa G, Bonadonna L, Lucentini L, Kenmoe S, Suffredini E. Coronavirus in Water Environments: Occurrence, Persistence and Concentration Methods: A Scoping Review. Water Research. 2020;179.
Gupta S, Parker J, Smits S, Underwood J, Dolwani S. Persistent Viral Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in Feces: A Rapid Review. Colorectal Dis. 2020;22(6):611-20.
Riddell S, Goldie S, Hill A, Eagles D, Drew TW. The Effect of Temperature on Persistence of SARS‐CoV‐2 onCommon Surfaces. Virology Journal; 2020.
Cervino GF, Luca S, Giovanni P, Valeria F, Maria TDS, Rosa L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Persistence: Data Summary up to Q2 2020. MDPI. 2020;5(3):81.
Carraturo F, Del Giudice C, Morelli M, Cerullo V, Libralato G, Galdiero E, et al. Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and Covid-19 Transmission Risk rom Environmental matrices and surfaces. Environ Pollute. 2020;265.
Pastorino B, Touret F, Gilles M, de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN. Prolonged Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in Fomites. Emerging Infectious Disease. 2020;26(9).
Fears AC, Klimstra WB, Duprex P, Hartman A, Weaver SC, Plante KS, et al. Persistence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Aerosol Suspensions. Emerg Infect Dis J. 2020;26(9).
Lo IL, Lio CF, Cheong HH, Lei CI, Cheong TH, Zhong X, et al. Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA Shedding in Clinical Specimens and Clinical Characteristics of 10 Patients with COVID-19 in Macau. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020;19(1).
Park SK, Lee CW, Park DI, Woo HY, Cheong HS, Shin HC, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Fecal Samples from Patients with Asymptomatic and Mild COVID-19 in Korea. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020;1542-3565.
Li Y, Hu Y, Yu Y, Zhang X, Li B, Wu J, et al. Positive result of Sars‐Cov‐2 in faeces and sputum from discharged patients with COVID‐19 in Yiwu, China. J Med Virology. 2020;92:1938-47.
Wu Y, Guo C, Tang L, Hong Z, Zhou J, Dong X, et al. Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in Fecal Samples. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;5:434-5.