A comparative study on protective factors, mental health and violence among male adolescents students of urban and rural school of Udaipur (Rajasthan), India

Rajkumari Ahir, Yogesh Kumar Singhal, Mohan Singh Dhaked, Poornima Sharma


Background: Objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of protective factors, mental health issues, and violence among the urban and rural adolescents.

Methods:A cross-sectional, descriptive study of two months duration was conducted among 280 male students of classes 9th and 10th of one urban and one rural school of Udaipur district of Rajasthan after taking prior permission and consent using a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: Significant observation was identified (p value < 0.0001) for missed classes among urban students than rural student (91.88% v/s 41.67%). Parents of urban students are more concerned for their homework (66.25% v/s 59.17%), problems and worries (63.75% v/s 58.33%), and activities in free time (53.75% v/s 49.17%). Mental health issues like loneliness (13.13% v/s 10.00%), worry (13.75% v/s 10.83%), and suicidal thoughts (9.30% v/s 6.60%) were higher among urban students but not significant. Issues on violence and bullying like physical fight (53.75% v/s 24.17%), bullying (43.15% v/s 15.0%), physical attack by family members (43.13% v/s 15.83%), and by teachers (51.25% v/s 11.67%) were significantly higher in urban adolescents (p value < 0.0001).

Conclusions:Mental health and violence-related issues were prevalent more among urban students than those among rural students in spite of having more protective factors and parents concern suggesting the need of frequent supervision, counselling, monitoring and support of adolescents.


Adolescent health problems, Protective factors, Mental health, Bullying, Suicidal thoughts

Full Text:



World health organization. Adolescent peer education in formal and non-formal settings. Report of and inter-country workshop, Monastir, Tunisia 6-9 December 2004. Cairo: WORLD Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2005. Available from: 03.05/500.pdf.

Eccles JS, Midgefield C, Wigfield A, Buchanan CM, Reuman D, Flannagan C,et al. development during adolescence : The impact of stage –environment fit on young adolescents, experience in schools and in families. Am Psychol 1993; 48: 90-101.

Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Life time prevalence and age of onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Co –Morbidity Study Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:593-602.

Anti-Bullying Centre. School Bullying: Key Facts. Dublin: Trinity College; 2002. Available from:

World Health Organization. Global school-based student health survey (GSHS). Available from:

Ray M, Malhi P. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:607-12.

Sharma R, Grover VL, Chaturvedi S. Suicidal behaviour amongst adolescent students in south Delhi. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33:85-8.

Sharma R, Grover VL, Chaturvedi S. Risk behaviors related to inter-personal Violence Among School and College-going Adolescents in South Delhi. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008;50:30-3.

Amrita Samanta, Shuvankar Mukherjee, Santanu Ghosh, Aparajita Dasgupta. Mental Health, Protective Factors and Violence among Male Adolescents: A Comparison between Urban and Rural School Students in West Bengal. Available from: on Monday, September 14, 2015.

WHO GSHS country report. China global school based student health survey, 2003. Jordan global school based student health survey, 2004.