Determination of microbial contamination of water used in the household for domestic purposes in Mombasa County, Kenya

Bibi A. Bakari, Juddy W. Mwaura, Shadrack A. Yonge


Background: Globally, 45% of the global population, showing that the compliance level is very low in most developing countries. In Kenya, 10% of all deaths caused by waterborne illnesses are due to water scarcity and poor sanitation. Mombasa County is facing a major problem in the provision of domestic water to its residents, thus causing a water shortage.

Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Mombasa County between November 2020-March 2021. 55 water samples were randomly collected for analysis of microbial contamination. Using stata for analysis, t-test was calculated to determine the relationship with p<0.05.

Results: TC mean for boreholes was ±761.68 CFU and tap water was ±712.23 CFU. There was a significant difference in means between the two groups for TC (t=7.38, df=41.94, p=0.000). Faecal coliforms (FC) for borehole and tap water was ±739.52 CFU and ±115.42 CFU respectively. FC showed a significant difference between the two groups (t=3.74, df=36.84 and p=0.0003). HPC means for borehole and tap water of water were ±7730.62 CFU and ±4092.12 CFU respectively. There was no significant difference in means for HPC for the two groups (t=1.73, df=53 and p=0.0445). 34.3% (n=12) and 20% (n=4) of boreholes and tap water were contaminated with salmonella respectively. None of the water samples collected had Shigella. 

Conclusions: All borehole water samples stored in the household storage containers were more contaminated than tap water, hence not fit to be consumed in the household.


Microbial contamination, Household storage containers, Water quality

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