Published: 2022-06-28

Assessment of job satisfaction among resident doctors in a public healthcare facility in Enugu state Southeast Nigeria

Ifeoma J. Ogugua, Chukwukasi W. Kassy, Casmir N. Ochie, Hope O. Nwoga, Kingsley I. Achigbu, Denning Chukwumam, Emmanuel N. Aguwa, Elias C. Aniwada, Tochi J. Okwor


Background: The effect of job satisfaction on work quality, work efficiency, and health care costs is known to be particularly significant in the healthcare sector. With the current brain drain crisis in the Nigerian health system, attention must be paid to doctors' job satisfaction for improved quality health care and patient safety. This study assessed the level of job satisfaction and associated factors among resident doctors working at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu Nigeria.

Methods: This facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 255 resident doctors using a validated 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. A convenience sampling technique was employed and data were analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21 software. The Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic variables and overall job satisfaction. The level of statistical significance was determined by a p<0.05.

Results: The majority of the respondents (62.7%) were not satisfied with their job in general. There were statistically significant association between the respondent’s salary (p=0.028), area of specialization (p<0.001), and years in residency training (p=0.007) and job satisfaction. The majority of the respondents were dissatisfied with physical working conditions (75.7%), hours worked (72.5), recognition for work (66.7%) and opportunities to use abilities (63.9).

Conclusions: The overall level of job satisfaction among resident doctors was low. It is, therefore, important for the hospital managers to set up policies to tackle the factors identified for improved job satisfaction.


Job satisfaction, Resident doctors, Public healthcare facility, Enugu state, Nigeria

Full Text:



Price JL. Handbook of organizational measurement. Int J Manpow. 1997;18:305-558.

Peng YP. Job satisfaction and job performance of university librarians: A disaggregated examination. Library & Information Science Research. 2014;36(1):74-82.

Liu Y, Aungsuroch Y, Yunibhand J. Job satisfaction in nursing: a concept analysis study. Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):84-91.

Olutayo FM, Dahiru T, Ali D, Fatai KS. Job satisfaction among doctors and nurses: a case study of Federal Medical Centre Yola, Nigeria. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(6):1640-7.

Ayamolowo SJ, Irinoye O, Oladoyin MA. Job satisfaction and work environment of primary health care nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria: an exploratory study. Int J Caring Sci. 2013;6:531-42.

Lasebikan OA, Ede O, Lasebikan NN, Anyaehie UE, Oguzie GC, Chukwujindu ED. Job satisfaction among health professionals in a federal tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2020;23:371-5.

Ogunnubi OP, Ojo TM, Oyelohunnu MA, Olagunju AT, Tshuma N. Stress and training satisfaction among resident doctors in Nigeria: Any justification for a change in training policy?. J Clin Sci. 2018;15:32-40.

Ogaboh A, Udom H, Eka I. Why Brain Drain in the Nigerian Health Sector? Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2020;8(2):95-104.

Najib M, Juni M.H, Salloum. A Brain-Drain Phenomenon among Healthcare Workers. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences. 2019;6(3):90-103.

Tarcan M, Hikmet N, Schooley B, Top M, Yorgancıoglu G. An analysis of the relationship between burnout, socio-demographic and workplace factors, and job satisfaction among emergency department health professionals. Appl Nurs Res. 2017;34:40-7.

Chang C.S. Moderating effects of nurses’ organizational justice between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors for evidence-based practice. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. 2014;11(5):332-40.

Suárez RNM, Asenjo MBAM, Sánchez M. Job satisfaction among emergency department staff. Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2017;20:31-67.

Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. Medical Residency Training Act, 2017. No. 28 A 273. Available at: ng/2018/ng-government-gazette-dated-2018-07-16-no-92.pdf. Accessed on 25 February 2022.

Omolase CO, Seidu MA, Omolase BO, Agborubere DE. Job satisfaction amongst Nigerian ophthalmologists: an exploratory study. Libyan J Med. 2010;5:4629.

Bello S, Afolabi RF, Adewole DA. Job Satisfaction and Psychiatric Morbidity among Resident Doctors in Selected Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria: A web-based Survey. JOHE. 2019;8(4):199-206.

Jadoo SA, Aljunid SM, Dastan I, Tawfeeq RS, Mustafa MA, Ganasegeran K, et al. Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors - a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study. Hum Resour Health. 2015;13:21.

Filho P, de Souza MR, Elias PE, Viana AL. Physicians’ job satisfaction and motivation in a public academic hospital. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14:75.

Enugu State Ministry of Information. About Enugu State—Enugu State Government Available at: Accessed on 9 January 2022.

Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC, editors. Calculation of required sampling size. In: Essential medical statistics. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2003;413-28.

Ugwu EA, Yakasi IA, Abubakar IA. Job satisfaction among resident doctors in a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern Nigeria. Asian Journal of social sciences and humanities. 2012;1(3):89-96.

Warr P, Cook J, Wall T. Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. Journal of Occupational Psychology. 1979;52(2):129-48.

Kolo ES. Job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary centre in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci. 2018;15:87-91.

Chew B, Ramli A, Omar M, Ismail I. A preliminary study of job satisfaction and motivation among the Malaysian primary healthcare professionals. Malays Fam Physician. 2013;8(2):15-25.

Saravanabavan L, Sivakumar MN, Hisham M. Stress and Burnout among Intensive Care Unit Healthcare Professionals in an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2019;23(10):462-6.

Hills D, Joyce C, Humphreys J. Validation of a job satisfaction scale in the Australian clinical medical workforce. Eval Health Prof. 2012;35(1):47-76.

Ali FS, Zuberi BF, Rasheed T, Shaikh MA. Why doctors are not satisfied with their job-current status in tertiary care hospitals. Pak J Med Sci. 2019;35(1):205-10.

Adeolu JO, Yussuf OB, Popoola OA. Prevalence and Correlates of Job Stress among Junior Doctors in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Ann Ibd Pg Med. 2016;14(2):92-8.

Mulugeta MM, Bali AG. Factors Associated to Job Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers at Public Hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Science Journal of Public Health. 2015;3(2):161-7.

Akinyemi O, Atilola O. Nigerian resident doctors on strike: insights from and policy implications of job satisfaction among resident doctors in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2013;28(1):46-61.

Bello S, Ajayi DT, Asuzu MC. Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Physicians in Public Hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 2018;30(1):19-33.

Ramalan MA, Garba RM. Determinants of Nigerian medical doctors' willingness to practice in foreign countries. Niger J Med. 2021;30:543-7.

Adebayo A, Akinyemi, OO. “What Are You Really Doing in This Country?” Emigration Intentions of Nigerian Doctors and Their Policy Implications for Human Resource for Health Management. J Int. Migr Integr. 2021;1-20.

Ogbuabor DC, Okoronkwo I, Uzochukwu B, Onwujekwe O. Determinants of job satisfaction and retention of public sector health workers in southeast Nigeria. Int J Med Health Dev. 2016;21(2):27-39.

Oleribe OO, Ezieme IP, Oladipo O, Akinola EP, Udofia D, Taylor-Robinson SD. Industrial action by healthcare workers in Nigeria in 2013–2015: an inquiry into causes, consequences, and control—a cross-sectional descriptive study. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14:46.

Raufu A. Nigerian health authorities worry over the exodus of doctors and nurses. BMJ. 2002;325(7355):65.

Yu X, Zheng M, Cheng X. Job Satisfaction Among Doctors from Jiangsu Province in China. Med Sci Monit. 2018;24:7162-9.

Olatunji SO. The Influence of Sex, Marital Status, and Tenure of Service on Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction of Health Workers in a Nigerian Federal Health Institution. An International Multidisciplinary Journal. 2014;8(1):126-33.

Dimou FM, Eckelbarger D, Riall TS. Surgeon Burnout: A Systematic Review. J Am Coll Surg. 2016;222(6):1230-9.

Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps GJ. Burnout and career satisfaction among American surgeons. Ann Surg. 2009;250(3):463-71.