DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220834
Published: 2022-03-25

Determinants of prostate cancer screening uptake among men aged 40 years and above in Ruiru sub county, Kenya

Margaret Mureithi, Maurice Onditi K'Odhiambo, James Mureithi, Mary Murigi

Abstract


Background: The Kenya demographic and health survey in the year 2014 indicated that only two-thirds of Kenyan men age 15-49 have heard of prostate cancer. In addition, only three percent of males aged 40 years and above have ever had a prostate cancer screening. This signifies that prostate cancer screening is still uncommon among Kenyan men despite prostate cancer being ranked third among commonly diagnosed cancers globally.  

Methods: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. Quantitative data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data was analysed using Statistical package for data analysis (SPSS). Thereafter, descriptive statistics were presented by the use of mean, percentages and proportions while inferential statistics that is standard deviation and Chi square values were used to determine the statistical significance (p≤0.05).

Results: This study shows that most men (87%) were aware of prostate cancer. Marital status p=0.007, occupation p=0.019, fear p=0.005, shyness/embarrassment p=0.034 and the level of education p=0.005 significantly influenced the uptake of cervical cancer screening among males aged 40 years and above. Noteworthy, education about prostate cancer screening did not significantly influence the males under this age brackets decision to get the prostate cancer screening.

Conclusions: More efforts are needed to encourage adult male who are highly at risk of prostate cancer to go for voluntary screening as early detection have been shown to improve the disease outcome. In addition, a dire need for increased awareness of prostate cancer screening to demystify fear by the stakeholders that is, the healthcare system, Ministry of Health, faith-based organizations, family as well as friends.


Keywords


Prostate cancer, Cancer screening, Cancer screening uptake

Full Text:

PDF

References


Litwin MS, Tan HJ. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review. JAMA. 2017;317(24):2532-42.

Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394-424.

Wong MC, Goggins WB, Wang HH, Fung FD, Leung C, Wong SY, et al. Global Incidence and Mortality for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Temporal Patterns and Trends in 36 Countries. Eur Urol. 2016;70(5):862-74.

Hayes JH, Barry MJ. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: a review of current evidence. JAMA. 2014;311(11):1143-9.

Edwards BK, Noone AM, Mariotto AB, Simard EP, Boscoe FP, Henley SJ, Jemal A, Cho H, Anderson RN, Kohler BA, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2010, featuring prevalence of comorbidity and impact on survival among persons with lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Cancer. 2014;120(9):1290-314.

Johnson JN, Hornik CP, Li JS, Benjamin DK, Yoshizumi TT, Reiman RE, et al. Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease. Circulation. 2014;130(2):161-7.

Garber A, Klein E, Bruce S, Sankoh S, Mohideen P. Metformin-glibenclamide versus metformin plus rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(2):156-63.

Calogero AE, Burgio G, Condorelli RA, Cannarella R, Vignera S. Epidemiology and risk factors of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction. Aging Male. 2019;22(1):12-9.

Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, Kwast T, et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol. 2014;65(1):124-37.

Wang K, Chen X, Bird VY, Gerke TA, Manini TM, Prosperi M. Association between age-related reductions in testosterone and risk of prostate cancer-An analysis of patients' data with prostatic diseases. Int J Cancer. 2017;141(9):1783-93.

Perdana NR, Mochtar CA, Umbas R, Hamid ARA. The risk factors of prostate cancer and its prevention: a literature review. Acta Medica Indonesiana. 2017;48(3):228-38.

Makori RN, Kirui AC, Karani AK. factors associated with uptake of PC screening among patients seeking health care services at Kenyatta national hospital. University of Nairobi. 2015.

Mutuma N, Mutai K, Wakhungu E. Participation rate and related socio-demographic factors in the National Cancer Screening Program. J Cancer. 2016;4(1):52.

ILO. National Reproductive Health Strategy 2014-2018, 2018. Available at: https://www.ilo.org/ wcmsgroups/public. Accessed on 08 February 2022.

Anita PA, Oluwabamide MA, Ejambi AA. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of PC Screening Procedure for PC in Kaduna, Nigeria. Tropical J Obstetr Gynaecol. 2005;21(2):1424.

Mutuma N, Mutai K, Wakhungu E. Participation rate and related socio-demographic factors in the National Cancer Screening Program. J Cancer. 2016;4(1):52.

Gomez SL, Hurley S, Canchola AJ, Keegan TH, Cheng I, Murphy JD, et al. Effects of marital status and economic resources on survival after cancer: A population-based study. Cancer. 2016;122(10):1618-25.