Published: 2022-03-25

Contexual correlates of development of anganwadi children 3-6 years of rural Uttar Pradesh, India- a complex interplay

Hossain Mehedi Rehman, Monika Agarwal, Pooja Mahour, Vijay Kumar Singh, Sheetal Prasad Patel, Kriti Yadhav


Background: The cross-sectional study was conducted in rural area of Lucknow, UP to assess the developmental status and its determinants among children aged 3 to 6 years registered in AWCs.

Methods: A visit was made to the households of all the registered children (3-6 years) and parents were interviewed to obtain the sample size of 314.

Results: Type of family, presence of congenital anomaly, educational status of the care giver, duration of EBF, presence of books and space to play were found to be independent predictors of the development status.

Conclusions: To conclude, there is a dire need for acknowledgement and prompt redressal of this loss of developmental potential in children at an early age.


Anganwadi, Contexual, Correlates, Development, Interplay, Rural

Full Text:



Rashmi R, Kiran NU. Prevalence and risk factors of under nutrition among under five children in a rural community. J Health Allied Sci NU. 2013;3(04):082-6.

Alim F, Jahan F. Assessment of nutritional status of rural anganwadi children of Aligarh under the ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) and rural health. Stud Home Com Sci. 2012;6(2):95-8.

Bhavsar S, Hemant M, Kulkarni R. Maternal and environmental factors affecting the nutritional status of children in Mumbai urban slum. Int J Sci Res Pub. 2012;2(11):1-9.

Anusha T. Comparative study of health status of anganwadi children in urban and rural field practice area of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar medical college. Bangalore: DR. B.R. Ambedkar medical college; 2012.

Gupta N, Kumar A, Khera R, Sankar A, Khurmi S, Srivastava M, et al. Operational Guidelines Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Delhi. 2012;

Devi LU, Jyothi A. Impact of ICDS on developmental milestones of children under five (2-5 years) in Telangana. 2014;3(11):2012-4.

Kular SS. A study on pre school education program for children under ICDS in rural Punjab. Int J Soc Sci Human Invent. 2015;2(04):1216-23.

Das BB, Swain SS. Impact of integrated child development services (ICDS) on language and cognitive development of tribal pre-school children. Scholar Res J Hum Sci Eng Lang. 2015;II:2183-91.

Ade A, Gupta SS, Maliye C, Deshmukh PR, Garg BS. Effect of improvement of pre-school education through anganwadicenter on intelligence anddevelopment quotient of children. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77(5):541-6.

Vital Statistics Division, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Clinical, Anthropometric and Biochemical (CAB) 2014, Fact Sheet, Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India; 2014. Available from: 2011-common/AHSurvey.html. accessed on 3 December 2021.

Ghai OP. Diseases of gastrointestinal tract and liver. In: Ghai Essential Pediatrics. 7th edn. Delhi-92: CSB Publications; 2009.

BharathRaj J. DST Manual +Know your child’s intelligence and how to improve it. Sri Meera Printers: Mysore; 1983.

Mangala S, Subrahmanyam G. Epidemiology of malnutrition among under five children in rural area in Karnataka , India. Int J Recent Trends Sci Tech. 2014;9(3):311-4.

Dabar D, Das R, Nagesh S, Yadav V, Mangal A. A community-based study on growth and development of under-five children in an urbanized village of South Delhi. J Trop Pediatr. 2016;1-11.

Ali S. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries. Adv Biomed Res. 2013;2(1):91.

Khomsan A, Anwar F, Hernawati N, Suhanda NS, Warsito O, Herawati T. Growth, cognitive development and psychosocial stimulation of preschool children in poor farmer and non-farmer households. Malay J Nutr. 2013;19(3).

Warsito O, Khomsan A, Hernawati N, Anwar F. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(5):451.

Arora S, Bharti S, Sharma S. Comparative study of cognitive development of ICDS and non-ICDS children (3-6 years). J Hum Ecol. 2007;22(3):201-4.

Determinants of Under Nutrition in Children and Assessment of Management at Different Levels of Health Care REPORT IndiaCLEN and INCLENTRUST. 2009. Available from: 2015/02/10.-Analysis-of-Social-Determinants-of-under-nutrition-in-children-Generating-evidence-for-policy.pdf. Accessed on 2 November 2021.

Vaida N. Impact of maternal occupation on health and nutritional status of preschoolers (In Srinagar City). IOSR J Hum Soc Sci. 2013;7(1):9-12.

Muluk N, Bayoglu B, Anlar B. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;271(5):871-8.

Santos LM dos, Santos DN dos, Bastos ACS, Assis AMO, Prado MS, Barreto ML. Determinants of early cognitive development: hierarchical analysis of a longitudinal study. Cad Saude Publica. 2008;24(2):427-37.

Bhandari D, Chib D, Mehta D. To assess the epidemiological risk factors and feeding practices in SAM children of Gorakhpur area. Int J Adv Res. 2016;4(3):231-4.

Davey S, Davey A, Adhish S, Bagga R. Impact of nutritional services of anganwadi workers in improving the nutritional status of infants in Delhi: a study by mixed method technique. Int J Res Found Hosp Healthcare Admin. 2015;3(2):57-64.

Chelule P, Chihope CN. Feeding practices among the child caregivers of 5year-old children attended to for acute malnutrition at Nyangabgwe. Botswana J afr Stud. 2014;28(1):13-27.

Goldstein J. Contributions of play and toys to child development. Toy Industries of Europe. 2003:1-19.

Bornstein M, Putnick D. Cognitive and socioemotional caregiving in developing countries. Child Develop. 2012;83(1):46-61.

Howe N, Recchia H. Sibling relations and their impact on children’s development. Encycl Early Child Dev. 2006;1-8.

Hay DF. Early Peer Relations and their Impact on Children’s Development. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. 2005;1-4. Available from: Accessed on 2 November 2021.

Moylan C, Herrenkohl T, Sousa C, Tajima E, Herrenkohl R, Russo M. The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. J Fam Viol. 2009;25(1):53-63.

Behind closed doors: the impact of domestic violence on children. Unicef. 2015. Available from: Accessed on 27 August 2016.

Stiles M. Witnessing domestic violence: the effect on children. Am Fam Phys. 2002;66(11):2052-66.