A comparative study on breastfeeding in rural and urban areas of Kanpur nagar, Uttar Pradesh


  • Shiv Ratan Department of Community Medicine, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Seema Nigam Department of Community Medicine, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India




Antenatal care, Breastfeeding, Exclusively breastfeeding, Postnatal care, Pre-lacteal feeds


Background: Appropriate infant feeding, with early initiation of breastfeeding along with colostrum as the first food, exclusive breastfeeding to six months, followed by the introduction of complementary foods with continued breastfeeding, is important for survival as well as physical growth and mental development of the child. World breastfeeding week (WBW) is celebrated every year from 1 to 7 August to encourage breastfeeding and improve the health of children around the world. Our objective was to determine the knowledge and practice of EBF among study subjects. To compare knowledge and practice of EBF among rural and urban study subjects.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted amongst mothers having children between 0-24 months of age group in the area of RHTC and UHTC of department of community medicine, GSVM Medical College Kanpur. Data was collected using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire after the house-to-house survey and Chi-square test used.

Results: Pre-lacteal feeds were given in 21.25% of children. Colostrum was given in 67.2% of babies. 18.5% of mothers initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour after delivery. 31.75% of babies were exclusively breastfed for more than 6 months. The majority of the mother (72.25%) continues breastfeeding up to 2 years. Majority (73%) of mothers give breastfeeding from both sides.

Conclusions: In our study, awareness about breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding and avoiding pre-lacteal feed. It supplies all the necessary nutrients in the proper proportions and protects against allergies, sickness, and obesity.


WHO, UNICEF: Planning Guide for National Implementation of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2007.

Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Matush L, et al. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2008;65(5):578-84.

National health portal Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Available from: nhm.gov.in/MAA/. Accessed on 2 June 2021.

Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. J Nutr. 2001;131(2):262–7.

Arifeen S, Black RE, Antelman G, Baqui A, Caulfield L, Becker S. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces acute respiratory infection and diarrhea deaths among infants in Dhaka slums. Pediatrics. 2001;108(4): E67.

Hoddinott P, Tappin D, Wright C. Breastfeeding. BMJ. 2008;336:881-7.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129:827-41.

International Institute for Population Sciences and ICF. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2017.

Laroia N, Sharma D. The religious and cultural bases for breastfeeding practices among the Hindus. Breastfeed Med. 2006;1:94-8.

Ogbo FA, Dhami MV, Awosemo AO. Regional prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in India. Int Breastfeed J. 2019;14:20.

Junaid M, Patil S. Breastfeeding practices among lactating mothers of a rural area of central India: A cross-sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018;5(12):5242-5.

Basu S, Garg S, Sharma a, Arora E,Singh MM. The Hindi Version of the Breastfeeding Self Efficacy Scale Short Form: Reliability and Validity Assessment. Indian J Community Med. 2020;45:348-52.

Dong D, Ru X, Huang X, Sang T, Li S, Wang Y, et al. A prospective cohort study on lactation status and breastfeeding challenges in mothers giving birth to preterm infants. Int Breastfeed J. 2022;17(1):1-3.

Karkee R, Lee AH, Khanal V, Binns CW. A community-based prospective cohort study of exclusive breastfeeding in central Nepal. BMC Pub Health. 2014;14(1):1-6.

Azeze GA, Gelaw KA, Gebeyehu NA, Gesese MM, Mokonnon TM, Exclusive breastfeeding practice and associated factors among mothers in Boditi Town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Int J Pediatr. 2019;11.

Sinha S, Singh V, Kumar S, Choudhary SK, Sinha S, Kumar B. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among mothers coming to primary health care center: an experience from rural Bihar. Int J Scient Stud. 2018;5(12):91.

Raut MM, Dhambhare DG, Sharma DA. A study of breastfeeding practices in a Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. Innov J Med Health Sci. 2013;3:238-41.

Davara K, Chavda P, Pandya C, Solanki D. Breastfeeding practices in children under 6 months of age: a community-based study in urban field practice area of a medical college in central Gujarat, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(5):1010-3.

Singh J, Vishakantamurthy DG, Charan PM. Breastfeeding practices among lactating mothers: Problems and prospects in a cross-sectional study. Int J Health Allied Sci. 2012;1:54-8.

Mandal PK, Sardar JC, Chatterjee C, Lahiri SK, Ghosh PK. A study on breast feeding practices among infants in a rural area of west Bengal. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2007;38(1-2):28-31.

Khan MH, Khalique N, Siddiqui A, Amir A. Breastfeeding Practices in Periurban Area of Aligarh-A Community Based Study. Nat J Res Community Med. 2012;1(4):178-241.

Sapna SP, Ameya AH, Rooma SP, Aarti P, Rashid A, Narayan K. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its correlates in an urban slum in western India. Int J Sci Med Educ. 2009;3(2):14-8.

World Health Organization. Infant and young child nutrition: global strategy on infant and young child feeding. Geneva; 2002 (Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly, A55/15). Available from: https://apps.who.int/gb/archive/pdf_files/WHA55/ea5515.pdf. Accessed on 2 June 2021.




How to Cite

Ratan, S., & Nigam, S. (2022). A comparative study on breastfeeding in rural and urban areas of Kanpur nagar, Uttar Pradesh. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(4), 1815–1820. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220859



Original Research Articles