DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220385

Epidemiological profile of COVID-19 patients admitted in Palakkad district- a descriptive study

Shilu M. Zachariah, Sreedevi Chakkanmattil, Divyamol Nallat, Deepak K. Soman

Abstract


Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a public health emergency of international concern. There is paucity of published data from India especially regarding the epidemiological information of COVID-19 patients and factors affecting the length of hospitalization.

Methods: The objectives of the study are to determine the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 patients and to determine the factors associated with their duration of hospital stay. The study is a descriptive study which includes all COVID-19 patients admitted to COVID-19 treatment centres of Palakkad district from 23 May 2020 to 30 June 2020.

Results: A total of 467 patients were obtained constituting 362 (77.5%) males and 105 (22.5%) females. The mean age was 36.52±14.44 years. 84 (17.99%) patients had comorbidities and 53 (11.35%) were symptomatic. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13.00±5.79 days (IQR 9-15). Symptomatic patients had higher odds of having a longer hospitalization compared to asymptomatic patients and this was found to be highly significant. Presence of comorbidities was also associated with longer duration of hospital stay which was significant.

Conclusions: A knowledge about the length of hospital stay will be crucial in determining the necessary infrastructure and manpower to manage the COVID-19 patients. If careful planning of health resources allocation is done, it will prevent undue overburdening of the health systems especially during a surge of COVID-19 cases.


Keywords


COVID-19, Epidemiological profile, Length of hospital stay

Full Text:

PDF

References


Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497-506.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395:507-13.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9.

WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-COVID-19. Accessed on 10 July 2020.

Andrews MA, Areekal B, Rajesh KR, Krishnan J, Suryakala R, et al. First confirmed case of COVID-19infection in India: A case report. Indian J Med Res. 2020;151:490-2.

Coronavirus in India: latest map and case count. Available at: https://www.covid19india.org. Accessed on 01 June 2020.

Gandhi PA, Kathirvel S. Epidemiological studies on coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in India: Too little and too late? Med J Armed Forces India. 2020;76(3):364-5.

Thai PQ, Toan DTT, Son DT, et al. Factors associated with the duration of hospitalisation among COVID-19patients in Vietnam: A survival analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e114.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 1919) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA Int Med. 2020;323:1239-42.

Mishra V, Burma AD, Das SK, Parivallal MB, Amudhan S, Rao GN. COVID 1919-Hospitalized Patients in Karnataka: Survival and Stay Characteristics. Indian J Public Health. 2020;64(2):221-4.

Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P. Comorbidity and its impact on patients with COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(8):1069-76.

Thiruvengadam G, Lakshmi M, Ramanujam R. A Study of Factors Affecting the Length of Hospital Stay of COVID-19 Patients by Cox-Proportional Hazard Model in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital. J Prim Care Comm Health. 2021;12.

Ji JS, Liu Y, Liu R. Survival analysis of hospital length of stay of novel coronavirus (COVID 19) pneumonia patients in Sichuan, China. medRxiv. 2020.

Guan W, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(12):343-6.

Lescure FX, Bouadma L, Nguyen D, Parisey M, Wicky PH, Behillil S, et al. Clinical and virological data of the first cases of COVID-19in Europe: a case series. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(6):697-706.

Wise J. A third of COVID-19 patients admitted to UK hospitals die. BMJ. 2020;369:1794.

World Health Organization. Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCOV) infection (Interim Guidance). Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330374/WHO-2019-nCoV-laboratory-2020.1-eng.pdf 10 January 2020. Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Government of Kerala. Revised guidelines for Testing, Quarantine, Hospital Admission and Discharge for COVID-19based on current risk assessment. Available at: http://dhs.kerala. gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/reg_1203 2020. pdf. Accessed on 16 July 2020.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID 1919) Situation Report – 129. 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200528-COVID 19-sitrep-129.pdf. Accessed on 17 September 2020.

World Health Organization. Clinical management of COVID-19 (Interim Guidance) Available at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-covid-19. Accessed on 13 October 2020.

Wang Z, Ji JS, Liu Y, Liu R, Zha Y, Chang X, et al. Survival analysis of hospital length of stay of novel coronavirus (COVID 19) pneumonia patients in Sichuan, China. medRxiv. 2020.