DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220384
Published: 2022-02-28

COVID-19 infection and vaccination status among health care workers in a tertiary care setting in Central Kerala

Anitha Bhaskar, Sobha Akshayakumar, Asha Joan Murali, Vipin Sam Alexander

Abstract


Background: With the emergence of several new variants of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV 2) virus, concerns regarding the effectiveness of vaccines arise and the threat of breakthrough infections increase. This study was conducted among health care workers who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection to assess their vaccination status and describe their morbidity profile.

Methods: A record based descriptive study was conducted among staff of Govt medical College, Kottayam, who became COVID-19 positive between March 2021 and September 2021, using a structured proforma. Data was coded and entered in Excel sheet and analysis was done using IBM Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.

Results: A total of 444 health care workers at Govt College Kottayam tested positive for COVID-19 during the study period. 369 of the health care workers had taken at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine, of which 273 (61.4%) were fully vaccinated. As on 31st August 2021, 4917 health care workers have been fully vaccinated, therefore the breakthrough infection rate in the present study was 5.6%. Of those with breakthrough infection 63% were females, 23.1% had history of comorbidities, and 88.6% were symptomatic. The mean interval between receipt of second dose of vaccine and diagnosis was 99 days (range between 16 and 24).

Conclusions: Breakthrough infection rate of 5.6% among health care workers presents a major public health challenge in ending the pandemic. Further studies including genomic variant analysis would be more helpful especially with in wake of new variants.


Keywords


COVID-19, Breakthrough infection, Health care workers

Full Text:

PDF

References


20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronav iruse/situation-reports/20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=20a99c10_4. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

COVIDVaccinationBooklet14SEP.pdf. Available at: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/COVIDVaccinationBooklet14SEP.pdf. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection among health care workers in a health care setting. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/protocol-for-assessment-of-potential-risk-factors-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-infection-among-health-care-workers-in-a-health-care-setting. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

GoK Dashboard | Official Kerala COVID-19 Statistics. Available at: https://dashboard.kerala. gov.in/covid/vaccination.php. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

Ezgi H, Caryn H, Yuhki S, Nathalie EB, Marissa B, Erin GC, et al. Vaccine Breakthrough Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Variants. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(2):e7.

Victor PJ, Mathews KP, Paul H, Mammen JJ, Murugesan M. Protective Effect of COVID-19 Vaccine Among Health Care Workers During the Second Wave of the Pandemic in India. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021;96(9):2493-4.

Tyagi K, Ghosh A, Nair D, Dutta K, Bhandari P, Ansari I. Breakthrough COVID19 infections after vaccinations in healthcare and other workers in a chronic care medical facility in New Delhi, India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021;15(3):1007-8.

Masthi R, Hebbar G. COVID-19 vaccination and breakthrough infections among healthcare workers: an online survey. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2021;8(11):5435-40.

Lange B, Gerigk M, Tenenbaum T. Breakthrough Infections in BNT162b2-Vaccinated Health Care Workers. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(12):1145-6.

Alishaq M, Nafady-Hego H, Jeremijenko A, Ajmi JAA, Elgendy M, Vinoy S, et al. Risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated healthcare workers. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(10):e0258820.

Maclean P, Mentzer AJ, Lambe T, Knight J. Why do breakthrough COVID-19 infections occur in the vaccinated? QJM Int J Med. 2021;hcab307.

Bergwerk M, Gonen T, Lustig Y, Amit S, Lipsitch M, Cohen C, et al. Covid-19 Breakthrough Infections in Vaccinated Health Care Workers. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(16):1474-84.

Breakthrough Infections: Coronavirus After Vaccination. Available at: https://www hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/breakthrough-infections-coronavirus-after-vaccination. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

CDCMMWR. COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Infections Reported to CDC — United States, January 1–April 30, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7021e3.htm. Accessed on 5 February 2022.

Butt AA, Nafady-Hego H, Chemaitelly H, Abou-Samra A-B, Khal AA, Coyle PV, et al. Outcomes Among Patients with Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Infection After Vaccination. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;110:353-8.

Klompas M. Understanding Breakthrough Infections Following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. JAMA. 2021;326(20):2018-20.

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Breakthrough Surveillance and Case Information Resource. 2021;11.