Differences in long-term sedation agents used for the critically ill patients


  • Ahmed Ragab Zein Department of Intensive Care Unit, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Shahad Saad Albishi Department of Intensive Care Unit, King Faisal Hospital, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Turki Nasser Alotaibi Ministry of Health, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Hidayah Dhiyaa Almanasif Department of Intensive Care Unit, Alkhafji General Hospital, Alkhafji, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammad Ibraheem Qashgry College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Saad Abdullah Al Holaibi College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Lujain Darwish Raggam College of Medicine, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Shahad Abdullah Albogami College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Turki Salem Aljaza Department of Anaesthesia, King Khalid Hospital, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Nimah Jameel Dhafar College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Haifaa Immad Aldin AlAswad College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia




ICU, Critically ill, Sedation, Anesthesia, Analgesics, Benzodiazepines


Sedative agents are commonly prescribed for critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The literature has reported many indications for using sedation for critically ill patients. These include reducing and managing high intracranial pressure, resolution of ventilator dyssynchrony, and decreasing agitation or anxiety. Different medications were reported in the literature as good sedatives for critically ill patients. Although very efficacious (benzodiazepines, propofol, and dexmedetomidine), many adverse events (as bradycardia, respiratory and myocardial depression, and hypotension) were reported as potential complications. The present literature review has discussed the potential differences and patients’ outcomes after sedation with long-term modalities in the ICU. Overall, clinicians must critically consider balancing the harms and benefits of using sedatives for critically ill patients because of the potential complications encountered during these procedures. In addition, different sedatives were reported in the literature with variable efficacies and adverse events. For example, using dexmedetomidine and propofol has been more advantageous than using benzodiazepines, and some studies also favor dexmedetomidine. However, it should be noted that adverse events are still reported with all of these modalities. Therefore, the administration of long-term sedatives should follow a strict protocol to enhance patients’ outcomes.


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How to Cite

Zein, A. R., Albishi, S. S., Alotaibi, T. N., Almanasif, H. D., Qashgry, M. I., Holaibi, S. A. A., Raggam, L. D., Albogami, S. A., Aljaza, T. S., Dhafar, N. J., & AlAswad, H. I. A. (2022). Differences in long-term sedation agents used for the critically ill patients. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(2), 1023–1028. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20220073



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