Etiology, prevalence and clinical signs of erythema toxicum neonatorum


  • Abdulwahid Mohammad Alghamdi Department of Pediatrics, Al Aziziyah Children Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Noura Muhammed Alomrani Department of Pediatrics, King Khalid Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmed Khaled Almarri College of Medicine, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammad Abdulghani Alqasimi Department of General Surgery, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Faisal Khalid Qutah Department of Psychiatry, Eradah Mental Health Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Roayad Mouayed Abuaziz Department of Pediatrics, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Haidar Makhasir Alshamrani Department of Pediatrics, Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdullah Ali Aljalfan College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Jawaher Hussain Alothayqi College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Waleed Fawaz Alharbi College of Medicine, Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ali Mohammed Alhudaif Department of Dermatology, Huraymala General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia



Erythema toxicum neonatorum, Risk factors, Etiology, Clinical manifestations, Cutaneous lesions, Pediatrics


Evidence shows that erythema toxicum neonatorum (ETN) has been described in the literature since the 15th decade as a primarily rash in pediatric patients. Clinical studies show that the lesion of ETN is mainly characterized by the presence of minute yellowish papules and pustules that are usually surrounded by an irregular reddish wheal. It should be noted that evidence also demonstrated the pathology of these lesions is temporary and usually disappears within a few hours. In the present literature review, we discussed the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical signs of ETN based on findings from relevant research. The etiology of ETN is not clear among the different studies. However, some studies show involvement of immune and potential allergic reactions. The prevalence of the condition among infants is also remarkably variable among the relevant studies worldwide. There is also inconsistency in reporting the significance of the risk factors related to the prevalence and severity of the condition. On the other hand, the clinical signs among studies seem to be consistent and easily detected except when evaluating dark-skinned infants. Further studies are needed better to understand the etiology and epidemiology of the condition.


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How to Cite

Alghamdi, A. M., Alomrani, N. M., Almarri, A. K., Alqasimi, M. A., Qutah, F. K., Abuaziz, R. M., Alshamrani, H. M., Aljalfan, A. A., Alothayqi, J. H., Alharbi, W. F., & Alhudaif, A. M. (2021). Etiology, prevalence and clinical signs of erythema toxicum neonatorum. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(1), 364–368.



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