Clinical outcomes and complications of patients undergoing surgery during the COVID-19 incubation period


  • Mohammad Saqib Siddiqui Department of General Surgery, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Bader Naji Al Hussain College of Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain
  • Hammad Abdulmughni Alshaikh Department of Emergency Medicine, King Fahad General Hosptial, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammad Younes Alshammari College of Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain
  • Abdullah Mohammed Abutaleb Department of General Surgery, Muhayil General Hospital, Muhayil, Saudi Arabia
  • Amer Mohammed Alsharif Department of Internal Medicine, Khulais General Hospital, Khulais, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdullah Abdulrahman Alwakeel Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Khaled Salem Almukhattir Department of General Surgery, Ahad Rufaidah General Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Badr Mujeb Alzahrani College of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  • Mohammed Ali Alotaif College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Majid Ghazi Al Nufaie Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia



SARS-CoV-2, Death, Mortality, Complications, COVID-19, Surgery


Conducting surgery might be challenging during the pandemic, especially for COVID-19 patients. This is because of the high transmissibility rate of the infection, which might lead to spreading the infection. Moreover, surgery might be associated with further risk over affected patients, a significant contributor to the operated patients' impaired immunity and generalized inflammatory state. Surgery is usually associated with an increased risk of high-stress levels and a generalized inflammatory state flare-up. The present literature review discusses the mortality rates and associated factors for COVID-19 patients during the incubation period. Our findings show that these patients have higher mortality rates as surgery influences the release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Besides, surgery might impair the immune functions leading to progressive deterioration of COVID-19. On the other hand, it has been reported that COVID-19 can also worsen the outcomes and increase the risk of morbidities and mortality among patients undergoing surgery. Different factors have been identified to contribute to this risk, including old age, being male, and the presence of comorbidities. Therefore, avoiding surgery during infection is suggested to reduce the risk of mortality, especially among patients with multiple risk factors. However, it should be noted that this evidence needs further validation.


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How to Cite

Siddiqui, M. S., Hussain, B. N. A., Alshaikh, H. A., Alshammari, M. Y., Abutaleb, A. M., Alsharif, A. M., Alwakeel, A. A., Almukhattir, K. S., Alzahrani, B. M., Alotaif, M. A., & Nufaie, M. G. A. (2021). Clinical outcomes and complications of patients undergoing surgery during the COVID-19 incubation period. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(1), 497–501.



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