Prevalence of smoking in a rural community of Bangladesh


  • Shaheen Akhtar Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shahabuddin Medical College and Hospital, Gulshan, Dhaka
  • Sharker Md. Numan Associate Professor, School of Science and Technology, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705
  • Sohel Ahmed Assistant Professor, North East Medical College, Sylhet
  • Mustafa Anwar Assistant Registrar, Ibn Sina Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka


Prevalence, Smoking, Public health, Rural population, Bangladesh


Background:Smoking is a global public health concern. It causes huge premature death, health issues and possess economic burden in the developing countries. Despite of mass anti-smoking camping prevalence of smoking is increasing in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking among a rural population of Bangladesh.

Methods:A cross-sectional study was designed to collect data from rural community of Bangladesh in February to April 2011. Sample was determined purposively and size was 500.

Results:The study’s current smoking prevalence was 39.4%. Respondents mean age was 34.63 years and current smokers mean age was 35.7SD ± 9.23 years. The prevalence of current smoking amongst male (89.3%) was significantly higher in comparison with the female (10.7%). Current smoking habit had been gradually decreased with the level of education. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly (P = 0.000) highest among the day labour (30.5%) and two-third smokers was initiated to smoking within the age of 10 to 20 years. About 36.4% of the current smokers smoked 5 to 15 sticks per day. Both ever (42%) and current (45.2%) smoking prevalence was highest amongst the population those monthly family income below 5000 Taka (60 USD).

Conclusions:Overall rural smoking prevalence was 39.4%. Ever and current smoking prevalence was significantly higher among males. Smoking prevalence was highest among the illiterate and reduced with the increase of level of education and socio-economic status. To reduce the smoking prevalence amongst the risk group, policy-maker should be implementing massive anti-smoking program.


Guindon GE, Boisclair D. Past, current, and future trends in tobacco use. The World Bank. 2003. Available at: Accessed 10 January 2004.

Ahmed S, Akter M, Mahzabeen R, Sayeed S, Momtaz H, Sayeed MA. Prevalence of tobacco consumption in a rural community of Bangladesh. Ibrahim Med Coll J. 2008;2(2):58-60.

Efroymson D, Ahmed S, Townsend J, Alam SM, Dey AR, Saha R, et al. Hungry for tobacco: an analysis of the economic impact of tobacco consumption on the poor in Bangladesh. Tob Control. 2001;10:212-7.

WHO. Profile on smoke-free environments in the South-East Asia region, 2007. Available at:

Khan MMH, Khandoker A, Kabir MA, Kabir M, Mori M. Tobacco consumption and its association with illicit drug use among men in Bangladesh. Addiction. 2006;101:1178-86.

Khan MMH, Khan A, Kraemer A, Mori M. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:149.

Choudhury K, Hanifi SMA, Mahmood SS, Bhuiya A. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco consumers in a rural area of Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:456-64.

Rahman M, Chowdhury AS, Fukui T, Hira K, Shimbo T. Association of thromboangiitis obliterans with cigarette and bidi smoking in Bangladesh: a case-control study. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29:266-70.

World Health Organization. Impact of tobacco-related illnesses in Bangladesh. Dhaka, 2005. Available at:

Barkat A, Chowdhury AU, Nargis N, Rahman M, Kumar PA, Bashir S, et al. The economics of tobacco and tobacco taxation in Bangladesh. Paris: International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2012. Available at:

Abdullah AS, Hitchman SC, Driezen P, Nargis N, Quah ACK, Fong GT. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the international tobacco control (ITC) Bangladesh survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:842-60.

Peters DH, Yazbeck AS, Sharma RR, Ramana GNV, Pritchett LH, Wagstaff A. Better health systems for India’s poor: findings, analysis, and options. In: Peters DH, Yazbeck AS, Sharma RR, Ramana GNV, Pritchett LH, Wagstaff A, eds. World Bank. Washington DC: eLibrary; 2002.

Jennifer B, Shakib S, Cruz TB, Hoffman BR, Pitney BH, Rohrbach LA. Smoking behavior among urban and rural native American adolescents in California. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25(3):251-4.

Abolfotouh MA, Aziz MA, Alakija W, Al-Safy A, Khattab MS, Mirdad S, et al. Smoking habits of King Saud University students in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 1998;18(3):212-6.

Osaki Y, Mei J, Tanihata T, Minowa M. Cigarette brand preferences of smokers among university students in Japan. Prev Med. 2004;38:338-42.

Eisenberg ME, Forster JL. Adolescent smoking behavior measures of social norms. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25(2):122-8.

Rampal L, Choo BH, Taha AM, Azhar MZ, Shafie O, Sirajoon NAG, et al. Prevalence of smoking, Malaysia 2004. Malaysian J Public Health Med. 2004;4(Suppl 2):20-1.

Monden CWS. Current or lifetime smoking? Consequences for explaining educational inequalities in self-reported health. Prev Med. 2004;39:19-26.

McDermott L, Russell A, Dobson A. Cigarette smoking among women in Australia. In: McDermott L, Russell A, Dobson A, eds. the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing as a contribution to the National Tobacco Strategy 1999 to 2002-03. Queensland: University of Queensland. 2002: 21-22.

CDC. Surgeon general’s reports - women and smoking 2001: at a glance. Available at:

Anuar HM, Hamid MA, Jaudin R, Salleh L, Abdullah S. Smoking and adults. National Health and Morbidity Survey 1996. Ministry of Health Malaysia. 1999;15.

World Bank. Curbing the epidemic governments and the economics of tobacco control. Washington DC: eLibrary; 1999: 120-121.

Avlonitou E, Samartzis S, Rigopoulou A, Frantzeskaki F, Behrakis P. Evaluation of smoking habits in students of the Athens medical school. Pneumonia. 2003;16(3):314-21.

Haddad LG, Malak MZ. Smoking habits & attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39:793-802.

Lantz PM. Smoking on the rise among young adults: implications for research and policy. Tob Control. 2003;12(Suppl I):160-70.

Smith M, Umenai T. Knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking among. University students of allied health science in Japan. Asia-Pac J Public Health. 2000;12(1):17-21.

Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hull S. Use of betel quid and cigarettes among Bangladeshi patients in an inner-city practice: prevalence and knowledge of health effects. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47(420):431-4.

Chowdhury K, Hanif SM, Mahmood SS, Bhuiya A. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco consumer in rural area of Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007 Dec;25(4):456-64.




How to Cite

Akhtar, S., Numan, S. M., Ahmed, S., & Anwar, M. (2017). Prevalence of smoking in a rural community of Bangladesh. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 2(1), 59–63. Retrieved from



Original Research Articles