Screening for hearing loss in the setting of primary care, and the most common used tests


  • Ohoud Adel Turkistani Department of Family Medicine, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Wjdan Abduljlil Al Arqan College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Rania Saad Alkhaibry College of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  • Yazan Adnan Ayoub College of Medicine, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Rawan Mesfer Alhuthali College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Hussain Ali Alsayegh College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Kholoud Khaled Momenah Home Healthcare Administration, Directorate of Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed Hamad Al Mansour College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohannad Sami Felemban Department of Emergency Medicine, King Faisal Hospital, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmed Ali Alqahtani Department of Emergency Medicine, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Jasem Mohammad Ameen College of Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain



Hearing loss, Deafness, Primary care, Audiology


Hearing loss is considered among the most common chronic disorders affecting people worldwide, especially older adults and geriatrics. More than half of older adults have age-related hearing loss, which worsens with age. The role of public health to estimate and manage the issue is crucial as early screening and management for hearing loss patients can be promising. The symptoms and signs of hearing loss can appear one up to two years before the significant hearing affection. Major lessons learned from this review are that elderly individuals and geriatrics are the most common targeted population for age-related hearing loss, followed by ear wax accumulation. Therefore, routine checkup for people who are 50 years for audiological disorders is a must. Associated disorders secondary to hearing loss include depression and anxiety, which significantly burden productivity over time. To our knowledge, we performed the first complex review regarding the screening for hearing loss within the setting of primary care centers and mentioned the most standard test used to diagnose and detect the issue as early as possible.


Michels TC, Duffy MT, Rogers DJ. Hearing Loss in Adults: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2019;100(2):98-108.

Patel R, McKinnon BJ. Hearing Loss in the Elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2018;34(2):163-74.

Tucci DL, Wilson BS, O'Donoghue GM. The Growing-and Now Alarming-Burden of Hearing Loss Worldwide. Otol Neurotol. 2017;38(10):1387-8.

Rutherford BR, Brewster K, Golub JS, Kim AH, Roose SP. Sensation and Psychiatry: Linking Age-Related Hearing Loss to Late-Life Depression and Cognitive Decline. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(3):215-24.

Leung MA, Flaherty A, Zhang JA, Hara J, Barber W, Burgess L. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2016;75(6):172-4.

Lasak JM, Allen P, McVay T, Lewis D. Hearing loss: diagnosis and management. Prim Care. 2014;41(1):19-31.

Walling AD, Dickson GM. Hearing loss in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(12):1150-6.

Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C, Fleming C, Beil T. Screening adults aged 50 years or older for hearing loss: a review of the evidence for the U.S. preventive services task force. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(5):347-55.

Kral A. Pathophysiology of hearing loss: Classification and treatment options. Hno. 2017;65(4):290-7.

Kunelskaya NL, Levina YV, Garov EV. Presbyacusis. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2019;84(4):67-71.

Buchanan LH. Early onset of presbyacusis in Down syndrome. Scand Audiol. 1990;19(2):103-10.

Sooriyamoorthy T, De Jesus O. Conductive Hearing Loss. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, Copyright © 2021, StatPearls Publishing LLC. 2021.

Nuttall T, Cole LK. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective. Vet Dermatol. 2004;15(2):127-36.

Cardoso FA, Monteiro EMR, Lopes LB, Avila M, Scarioli BO. Adenomatous Tumors of the Middle Ear: A Literature Review. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;21(3):308-12.

Hill-Feltham PR, Johansson ML, Hodgetts WE. Hearing outcome measures for conductive and mixed hearing loss treatment in adults: a scoping review. Int J Audiol. 2021;60(4):239-45.

Davies RA. Audiometry and other hearing tests. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;137:157-76.

Kaga K. Auditory nerve disease and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016;43(1):10-20.

Robinson DW. A review of audiometry. Phys Med Biol. 1971;16(1):1-24.

Bayoumy AB, de Ru JA. Sudden deafness and tuning fork tests: towards optimal utilisation. Pract Neurol. 2020;20(1):66-8.

Kelly EA, Li B, Adams ME. Diagnostic Accuracy of Tuning Fork Tests for Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;159(2):220-30.

Polonenko MJ, Maddox RK. The Parallel Auditory Brainstem Response. Trends Hear. 2019;23:2331216519871395.

Ryland MG. The amazing ear: what happens before the brainstem auditory evoked response. Am J Electroneurodiagnostic Technol. 2009;49(1):1-13.

Chandrasekhar SS, Tsai Do BS, Schwartz SR. Clinical Practice Guideline: Sudden Hearing Loss (Update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019;161(1):S1-S45.

Smeltzer CD. Primary care screening and evaluation of hearing loss. Nurse Pract. 1993;18(8):50-5.

Nieman CL, Oh ES. Hearing Loss. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(11):Itc81-itc96.




How to Cite

Turkistani, O. A., Arqan, W. A. A., Alkhaibry, R. S., Ayoub, Y. A., Alhuthali, R. M., Alsayegh, H. A., Momenah, K. K., Mansour, M. H. A., Felemban, M. S., Alqahtani, A. A., & Ameen, J. M. (2021). Screening for hearing loss in the setting of primary care, and the most common used tests. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(1), 389–393.



Review Articles