Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on medical and paramedical staff at a tertiary care center: an observational, cross sectional, survey-based study


  • Gunjan Ramteke Department of Medical Research, Bhaktivedanta Hospital and Research Institute, Mira Road, Maharashtra, India
  • Namrata Britto Department of Biological Sciences, Sunandan Divatia School of Science, Vile Parle, Maharashtra, India
  • Vijaykumar Gawali Department of Medical Research, Bhaktivedanta Hospital and Research Institute, Mira Road, Maharashtra, India



Corona virus, Paramedical staff, Mental health, Stress, Covid-19, Pandemic


Background: The health-care workers experienced various adverse psychological reactions due to COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to assess the anxiety and stress faced by the medical and paramedical staff while dealing with the pandemic.

Methods: Analysis of 190 respondents of the survey was performed. Medical and paramedical staff included those of Bhaktivedanta hospital and research institute, Mumbai only. Data based on two questionnaires GAD-7 and “stress and anxiety assessment scale (SAAS)” was collected in the form of a survey from 15August 2020 till 31 May 2021 to assess the individual’s mental health.

Results: Analysis of responses from GAD-7, a 7-item assessment scale and SAAS, a 14-item assessment scale were obtained. From the GAD-7 scale, 3.53% and from the SAAS scale, 9.09%, of the total health-care workers were found to have high anxiety and stress due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Conclusions: Although mediocre levels of stress and anxiety were found to be prevalent among the medical health-care workers, proper and timely mental health support and care must be provided to them even in normal conditions. This ensures safe and efficient execution of one’s duties even during crisis.


COVID-19. Available at: news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19. Accessed on 20 September 2021.

Karia R, Gupta I, Khandait H, Yadav A, Yadav A. COVID-19 and its Modes of Transmission. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020:1-4.

Alonso J, Vilagut G, Mortier P, Ferrer M, Alayo I, Aragón-Peña A et al. Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental. 2021;14(2):90-105.

Walton M, Murray E, Christian M. Mental health care for medical staff and affiliated healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2020;9(3):241-7.

Lu W, Wang H, Lin Y, Li L. Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112936.

Van Gerven E, Bruyneel L, Panella M. Psychological impact and recovery after involvement in a patient safety incident: a repeated measures analysis. BMJ. 2016;6: e011403.

Ehrlich H, McKenney M, Elkbuli A. Protecting our healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Emerg Med. 2020;38(7):1527-8.

Ji D, Ji YJ, Duan XZ, Li WG, Sun ZQ, Song XA, et al. Prevalence of psychological symptoms among Ebola survivors and healthcare workers during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study. Oncotarget. 2017;8(8):12784.

Lee SM, Kang WS, Cho AR, Kim T, Park JK. Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Comprehens Psychiat. 2018;87:123-7.

Lin CY, Peng YC, Wu YH, Chang J, Chan CH, Yang DY. The psychological effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome on emergency department staff. Emerg Med J. 2007;24(1):12-7.

Society of critical care medicine COVID-19 rapid cycle survey work group. COVID-19 rapid-cycle survey 2 report globally. Soc Crit Care Med. 2020:1-8.

Xiao X, Zhu X, Fu S, Hu Y, Li X, Xiao J. Psychological impact of healthcare workers in China during COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic: a multi-center cross-sectional survey investigation. J Affect Disord. 2020;274:405-10.

Dalal D, Govindwar A, Gangwani G, Save D, Nipane H, Gawali V, et al. World need to address something beyond than just a physical impact caused by COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective, multicentre study of psychosomatic impact due to COVID-19 disease. Int J Commu Med Public Health. 2021;8:1923-9.

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976.

Zhang W, Wang K, Yin L, Zhao W, Xue Q, Peng M, et al. Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom. 2020;89(4):242-50.

Cai H, Tu B, Ma J. Psychological impact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in hunan between January and March 2020 during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei, China. Med Sci Monit Int Med J Exp Clin Res. 2020; 26:e924171.

Virtanen M. Stress at work–a risk factor for depression? Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010;36:433-4.

Gafarov VV, Gromova EA, Panov DO, Gagulin IV, Gafarova AV. Effect of stress at work on the risk of cardiovascular diseases among the population of 25-64 years in Russia/Siberia (WHO program “MONICA-psychosocial”). Ter Arkh. 2019;91:13-8.

Magnavita N, Soave PM, Antonelli M. Prolonged Stress Causes Depression in Frontline Workers Facing the COVID-19 Pandemic-A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study in a COVID-19 Hub-Hospital in Central Italy. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18:7316.

Dutheil F, Mondillon L, Navel V. PTSD as the second tsunami of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Psychol Med. 2020;1-2.

Barello S, Palamenghi L, Graffigna G. Burnout and somatic symptoms among frontline healthcare professionals at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiat Res. 2020;113-29.

Gold JA. Covid-19: adverse mental health outcomes for healthcare workers. BMJ. 2020;369.

Dalal D, Thiyagarajan K, Nipane H, Gawali V. A single-center study on impact of psychological intervention to acclimatize medical staffs who are serving COVID-19 disease patients, to continue hospital activities without any disruption. Int J Commun Med Public Health. 2021;8:3048-54.

Dewey C, Hingle S, Goelz E. Supporting clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172:752-3.

Seys D, Scott S, Wu A. Supporting involved health care professionals (second victims) following an adverse health event: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50:678-87.

Wu AW, Connors C, Everly GS. COVID-19: peer support and crisis communication strategies to promote institutional resilience. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172(2).

Shapiro J, McDonald TB. Supporting clinicians during COVID-19 and beyond-learning from past failures and envisioning new strategies. N Engl J Med. 2020.




How to Cite

Ramteke, G., Britto, N., & Gawali, V. (2021). Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on medical and paramedical staff at a tertiary care center: an observational, cross sectional, survey-based study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(1), 229–234.



Original Research Articles