Published: 2021-10-27

Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Baringo County, Kenya

Emily G. Kiptui, Sabella J. Kiprono, Gladys J. Mengich


Background: Leishmaniasis is protozoan disease, transmitted by Sandflies. The annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa is between 29,400 and 56,700 cases, accounting for approximately 15% of the global cases. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Baringo County yet the current report on risk factor burden of the disease has not been documented. Objective was to assess risk factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Baringo County, Kenya.

Methods: Analytical cross sectional study design was conducted in Tiaty and Baringo south sub counties, Baringo County. The study population was 422 households selected through simple random sampling. The data collection tool were questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and chi square test of independence. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio. Variables with p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Findings showed that uneducated were majority (68%), higher number of the population had more than 6 persons per household (70.6%). On occupation, pastoralists were more affected (62.2%), those living in mud and cracked house were more (61.8%) (63.0 %) respectively p<0.01. Daily activity 35.24, p<0.01), sleeping under acacia tree 53.42, p<0.01), sleeping outside the house 112.7, p<0.01), and presence of ant hills nearby homestead 32.42, p<0.01) were individual risk factors significantly associated visceral leishmaniasis.

Conclusions: The risk factors increased the exposure of the community to visceral leishmaniasis infection which needs to be addressed through control and prevention measures.


Neglected tropical diseases, Risk factors, Visceral leishmaniasis

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