A comparative study for production of germ tube in Candida albicans of various pulmonary samples, by different methods in a tertiary care hospital of south west Rajasthan
Keywords:Candida albicans, Chlamydospore, Trypticase
Background: Systemic candidiasis is associated with a high crude mortality rate, even with first line antifungal therapy. C. albicans is the predominant cause of invasive fungal diseases which is a serious public health issue. The main objective was to assess the reliability of different media for germ tube production in Candida albicans isolated from various clinically diagnosed pulmonary samples.
Methods: All Candida isolates were identified and speciated by conventional methods such as Gram’s staining, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test, and growth on Hi-chrome candida agar.
Results: Out of 108 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, 5 different methods were used for germ tube production. Pooled human sera showed 93/108 (86.1%) was the most sensitive method wherein YEPD (yeast extract peptone dextrose) broth 91/108 (84.7%) was the reliable and easy method for detection of germ tube, followed by trypticase soy broth 81/108 (81.4%); peptone water 80/108 (74.7%) and 2% sucrose 71/108 (65.7%).
Conclusions: YPED broth is found to be a better serum free substrate and subsequently for the presumptive differentiation of C. albicans from non-albicans candida (NAC), without the extensive time required for the preparation and testing of pooled human serum. Furthermore, this medium is commercially available, more stable, effective, and is not bio hazardous.
Ruhnke M. Epidemiology of Candida albicans infections and role non-candida albicans yeasts. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:495-504.
Sachin CD, Ruchi K, Santosh S. In vitro evaluation of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolysin activities of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Med Biomed Res. 2012;1:153-7.
Sullivan D, Haynes K, Bille J, Boerlin P, Rodero L. widespread geographical distribution of oral candida dubliniensisstrains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:3007-12.
Deorukhkar SC, Saini S, Jadhav PA. Evaluation of different media for germ tube production of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. IJBAR. 2012;3(09):704-7.
Taschdjian CL, Burchall JJ, Kozinn PJ. Rapid identification of Candida albicans by filamentation on serum and serum substitutes. Am J Clin Pathol. 1960;90:212-5.
Arora DR, Saini S, Aparna, Gupta N. Evaluation of germ tube test in various media. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46(1):124-6.
Kim D, Shin WS, Lee K H , Park J Y, Koh CM. Rapid differentiation of Candida albicans from other Candida species using its unique germ tube formation at 39 dgeree C. Yeats 2002;19(11):957-62.
Kim D, Shin WS, Lee KH, Kim K, Park JY, Koch CM. Rapid differentiation of Candida albicans from Candida species using its unique germ tube formation at 39°C. Yeast. 2002;19:957-62.
Sheppard DC, Locas MC, Restieri C, Laverdiere. Utility of germ tube formation at 39°C. Yeast. 2002;19:957-62.
Makwana GE, Gadhavi H, Sinha M. Comparison of germ tube production by Candida albicans in various media. NJIRM. 2012;3:6-8.
Mattei AS, Alves SH, Severo CB, Guazzelli LD, Oliveira FD, Severo LC. Use of Mueller-Hinton broth and agar in the germ tube test. Revista do Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2014;56:483-5.
Raghunath P, Kumari KS, Subbannayya K. SST broth, a new serum free germ tube induction medium for identification of Candida albicans. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30(7):1955-8.
Sevilla MJ, Odds FC. Development of Candida albicans hyphae in different growth media-variations in growth rates, cell dimensions and timing of morphogenetic events. Microbiology. 1986;132(11):3083-8.
Atalay MA, Koc AN, Parkan OM, Aydemir G, Elmali F, Sav H. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test? Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20(1):61-3.
Pollack JH, Hashimoto T. The role of glucose in the pH regulation of germ-tube formation in Candida albicans. Microbiology. 1987;133(2):415-24.