Published: 2021-10-27

Skin manifestations of autoimmune diseases in the pediatrics

Nawal R. Alyamani, Ridha M. Alsuwayq, Nawaf M. Bahatheq, Zahra A. Alkhatir, Arwa W. Alhawdar, Yousef H. Alharthi, Khalid H. Alqarni, Ebtihal A. Turkistani, Riam S. Alkhamis, Rhonda A. Alkhowaiter, Latifa I. Albrahim, Mohammed A. Safar


Autoimmune diseases during childhood are common and are usually observed to affect multiple systems. Among many pediatric autoimmune diseases, several cutaneous manifestations were reported in the literature, and the adequate examination and detection of these manifestations might significantly enhance the chances of establishing an adequate diagnosis of the underlying diseases and conditions because the affected patients usually present with typical symptoms. Establishing a proper diagnosis can enhance the prognosis of the affected patients and might prevent the development of serious complications and other adverse events. Besides, it was also previously indicated that establishing an early diagnosis will furtherly help with deciding the most appropriate interventions, which will also enhance the prognosis of the pediatric population. In this literature review, we have discussed the cutaneous manifestations of several autoimmune diseases that might affect the pediatric population. We have majorly discussed the conditions that are associated with systemic lupus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, dermatomyositis, juvenile-onset systemic sclerosis and morphea. The cutaneous manifestations of these conditions are hugely variable and usually need careful examination and adequate differential diagnosis to establish the best management modality. Besides, some manifestations might gradually develop which might even make the diagnostic approaches even more difficult. Accordingly, clinicians should provide full and thorough examination and diagnosis of the suspected patients because detecting such cases might significantly enhance the prognosis and lead to adequate treatment. 


Autoimmune disease, Pediatric, Systemic lupus erythematosis, Dermatomyositis

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