Published: 2021-11-24

Ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay in an eye hospital of northern Bangladesh

Rokhsana Afroze, Khairul Islam, Sajidul Huq


Background: The aim of this study was to identify common ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay in an eye hospital of northern part of Bangladesh.

Methods: It was a retrospective medical record review of children with developmental delay who attended the pediatric ophthalmology department in an eye hospital from January 2019 to December 2019. Data were collected for their age, gender, past medical history, ophthalmic examination findings and systemic problems. Ophthalmic examination included examination of lid and adnexa, anterior and posterior segment examination and assessment of squint and refraction.

Results: Medical records of 102 with developmental delay were identified and studied (59 boys and 43 girls, mean age 1.57 years, 53.9% aged <1 year). Of these children, 44 (43.1%) were referred by the pediatricians. The most common past medical histories were perinatal asphyxia (42.2%), history of convulsion (30.4%), neonatal seizures (9.8%) and history of speech delay (1%). On ophthalmic examination, 30 (29.5%) had poor vision, 20 (19.6%) had refractive error, 23 (22.5%) had Strabismus and 11 (10.8%) had nystagmus. Optic atrophy was also observed among 11 children (10.8%).

Conclusions: Ocular manifestations are commonly seen in children with developmental delay which can be cause of severe visual impairment and overall disability in later life. Hence an early ophthalmologic screening and intervention in these children by developing good referral network between ophthalmologist and pediatricians can help to substantially improve the developmental and academic achievement.



Developmental delay, Optic atrophy, Refractive error, Strabismus

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