DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20214294

Second wave COVID crisis, social responsibility and social stigma in India

Manoj Madheswaran

Abstract


India, the second most populous country in the world and home of 1.30 billion population sees sudden emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that is responsible for this global pandemic. The origin of this virus is still unknown. This pandemic causes heavy impact on its health infrastructure. Although this pandemic hit at global level, this review is particularly highlight the pandemic situation and how it is being tackled in India. During April and May 2021, due to the high surge of cases, India had reported several million numbers of COVID-19 affected people. During this course of tackling this pandemic, India sees a huge surge of vaccine hesitancy due to various factors. Data suggests that the virus affects younger age groups as well. This review tends to highlight the actual situation and major factors contributed to COVID-19 pandemic in India, also to highlight India’s vaccine policy. To shed light on what went wrong and what can be learned from COVID-19 crisis in India. This data presents important results regarding the COVID‐19 pandemic in India.


Keywords


COVID-19, India, Vaccination, Pandemic, Policies

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tyrrell DAJ, Bynoe ML. Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-cold Virus in Organ Cultures. BMJ. 1965;1(5448):1467-70.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2018;17(3):181-92.

Zhao J, Zhao S, Ou J, Zhang J, Lan W, Guan W et al. COVID-19: Coronavirus Vaccine Development Updates. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020;11.

de Wit E, van Doremalen N, Falzarano D, Munster V. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016;14(8):523-34.

WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. Available at: https://www.who.int/ emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/. Accessed on 28 March 2021.

Li J, Gong X, Wang Z, Chen R, Li T, Zeng D et al. Clinical features of familial clustering in patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Virus Research. 2020;286:198043.

Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270-3.

The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nature Microbiology. 2020. 2020;5(4):536-44.

Chen L, Liu W, Zhang Q, Xu K, Ye G, Wu W et al. RNA based mNGS approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 Wuhan outbreak. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2020;9(1):313-9.

Tan W, Zhao X, Ma X. A novel coronavirus genome identified in a cluster of pneumonia cases—Wuhan, China 2019–2020. China CDC Weekly. 2020;2:61-2.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.

Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;11(2):12-4.

Chopra K, Arora V. Covid-19 and social stigma: Role of scientific community. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2020;67(3):284-5.

Karadag E. Increase in COVID‐19 cases and case‐fatality and case‐recovery rates in Europe: A cross‐temporal meta‐analysis. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020;92(9):1511-7.

de Haan CAM, Kuo L, Masters PS, Vennema PJM. Rottier Coronavirus particle assembly: primary structure requirements of the membrane protein J Virol. 1998;72(8):6838-50.

Wang M, Zhao R, Gao L, Gao X, Wang D, Cao J. SARS-CoV-2: Structure, Biology, and Structure-Based Therapeutics Development. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2020;10.

Naqvi AAT, Fatima K, Mohammad T, Fatima U, Singh IK, Singh A et al. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020;1866(10):165878.

Banerjee AK, Blanco MR, Bruce EA, Honson DD, Chen LM, Chow A et al. Cell. 2020;183(5):1325-39.e21.

Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA et al. Nature. 2003;426(6965):450-4.

Ysrafil. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): An overview of viral structure and host response Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 2020;14:407-12.

Chung J, Thone M, Kwon Y. COVID-19 vaccines: The status and perspectives in delivery points of view. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2021;170:1-25.

Chan J, Yuan S, Kok K, To K, Chu H, Yang J et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514-23.

Chen Y, Klein S, Garibaldi B, Li H, Wu C, Osevala N et al. Aging in COVID-19: Vulnerability, immunity and intervention. Ageing Research Reviews. 2021;65:101205.

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:1054-62.

Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, et al. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020;9(4):22-7.

Area and population. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Available at: https://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/area_and_population.aspx. Accessed on 28 March 2021.

Ghosh P, Ghosh R, Chakraborty B. COVID-19 in India: State wise Analysis and Prediction. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 2020;6(3):e20341.

Is India entering stage 3 of covid-19 outbreak? India Today. 2020. https://www.indiatoday.in /programme/to-the-point/video/is-india-entering-stage-3-of-covid-19-outbreak-1661544-2020-03-30. Accessed on 01 April 2020.

Gunthe SS, Patra SS, Impact of international travel dynamics on domestic spread of 2019-nCoV in India: Origin-based risk assessment in importation of infected travelers. Global. Health. 2020;16:45.

Gunthe S, Patra S. Impact of international travel dynamics on domestic spread of 2019-nCoV in India: origin-based risk assessment in importation of infected travelers. Globalization and Health. 2020;16(1).

Bwire GM, Paulo LS. Coronavirus disease-2019: is fever an adequate screening for the returning travelers? Trop Med Health. 2020;48(1).

Singh A, Singh A, Shaikh A, Singh R, Misra A. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020;14(3):241-6.

Sasikumar K, Nath D, Nath R, Chen W. Impact of Extreme Hot Climate on COVID‐19 Outbreak in India. GeoHealth. 2020;4(12).

India under COVID-19 lockdown. The Lancet. 2020;395(10233):1315.

Wibawa T. COVID‐19 vaccine research and development: ethical issues. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2020;26(1):14-9.

Thirumurthy P. TN govt must avoid use of Covaxin: VCK’s Thirumavalavan. The News Minute. 2021. Available at: https://www.thenewsminute.com /article/tn-govt-must-avoid-use-covaxin-vck-s-thirumavalavan-141522. Accessed on 28 March 2020.

The New Indian Express. 2021. Chhattisgarh government says won't use Covaxin till phase three trial is over. Available at: https://www.new indianexpress.com/nation/2021/feb/12/chhattisgarh-government-says-wont-use-covaxin-till-phase-three-trial-is-over-2262821.html. Accessed on 2 May 2021.

[38] Sharma N. Covid-19 vaccine wastage as high as 37% in some states: Centre. 2021. Available at: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/covid19-vaccine-wastage-as-high-as-37-in-some-states-centre-11621956664973.html. Accessed on 28 March 2021.

The New Indian Express. Oxygen shortage: 20 more deaths occur in 24 hours at Chamarajanagar government hospital in Karnataka. Available at: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/karnataka/2021/may/10/oxygen-shortage-20-more-deaths-occur-in-24-hours-atchamarajanagar-government-hospital-in-karnataka-2300523.html. Accessed on 28 March 2021.

Bhuyan A. Experts criticise India's complacency over COVID-19. The Lancet. 2021;397(10285):1611-2.

The Hindu. Ambulances queue up outside hospitals as beds turn scarce. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/ambulances-queue-up-outside-hospitals-as-beds-turn-scarce/article34502645.ecehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/ambulances-queue-up-outside-hospitals-as-beds-turn-scarce/article34502645.ece. Accessed on 28 March 2021.

Raut A, Huy N. Rising incidence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19: another challenge for India amidst the second wave?. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2021.

John TM, Jacob CN, Kontoyiannis DP. When uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and severe COVID-19 converge: the perfect storm for mucormycosis. J Fungi. 2021;7:298.

Shetty P. Experts concerned about vaccination backlash. Lancet. 2010;375:970-1.

Kumar D, Chandra R, Mathur M, Samdariya S, Kapoor N. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research. 2016;5(1).

Nayar R, Nair A, Shaffi M, Swarnam K, Kumar A, Abraham M et al. Methods to overcome vaccine hesitancy. The Lancet. 2019;393(10177):1203-4.

IFRC, UNICEF WHO. Social Stigma Associated with COVID-19 A Guide to Preventing and Addressing. 2020.

Chopra K, Arora V. Covid-19 and social stigma: Role of scientific community. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2020;67(3):284-5.

Kuppalli K, Gala P, Cherabuddi K, Kalantri SP, Mohanan M, Mukherjee B et al. India’s COVID-19 crisis: a call for international action. The Lancet. 2021;397(10290):2132-5.

Twitter source: Twitter source: Available at: https://twitter.com/anniegowen/status/1387623446910169091.

Nature.com. 2021. Embrace the WHO’s new naming system for coronavirus variants. Nature. 2021. Available at: https://www.nature.com/articles/ d41586-021-01508-8. Accessed on 20 May 2021.