DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20214291
Published: 2021-10-27

The relationship between Apgar score and gender with the incidence of neonatal sepsis: systematic review

Merry Lidya, Umi Hanik Fetriyah, Dini Rahmayani, Malisa Ariani

Abstract


Neonatal sepsis is a cause of mordibity and mortality in newborns that causes long-term complications that can lead to death. One of risk factors for neonatal sepsis in infants is the Apgar score and gender. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between Apgar score and gender with the incidence of neonatal sepsis. This study was systematic review, in searching sourced from six databases (EBSCO, Clinicalkey Nursing, PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct and Springer Link). In searching for studies using the PICOS framework, the selection study used The Joanna Brigss Guideline Critical Appraisal. The literature used was 14 studies. The results of this study were from 14 literatures used, the average total incidence of neonatal sepsis was 0.356 (35.6%).10 of the 14 literatures stated that the 5th minute Apgar score of less than seven (<7) could be an independent predictor of the risk of neonatal sepsis with a mean risk of 16.9% (p value<0.01) and there were 8 from 14 literatures which states that there is a significant relationship between gender and the incidence of male gender morbidity with a risk of 1.02 (p value=0.00). The results showed that there was a relationship between Apgar scores and gender with the incidence of neonatal sepsis. Therefore, nurses or birth attendants need to be vigilant and take preventive measures if they find babies have Apgar scores and male sex as signs of a possible higher risk of neonatal sepsis in newborns.


Keywords


Apgar score, Gender, Sepsis, Neonatal

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akalu TY, Gebremichael B, Desta KW, Aynalem YA, Shiferaw WS, Alamneh YM. Predictors of neonatal sepsis in public referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia: A case control study. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):234472.

Ershad M, Mostafa A, Dela CM, Vearrier D. Neonatal Sepsis. Curr Emerg Hosp Med Rep. 2019;7(3):83-90.

GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1459-544.

Yuliana F, Mahpolah M, Nopariyanti E. Maternal Risk Factors in Increasing the Incidence of Neonatal Sepsis in RSUD Dr. H. Moch. Ansari Saleh Banjarmasin. Midwifery Natl Semin. 2019;1:73-83.

Savioli K, Rouse C, Susi A, Gorman G, Gorman E. Suspected or known neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopmental delay by 5 years. J Perinatol. 2018;38(11):1573-80.

Giannoni E, Agyeman PKA, Stocker M, Posfay BKM, Heininger U, Spycher BD, et al. Neonatal Sepsis of Early Onset, and Hospital-Acquired and Community-Acquired Late Onset: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2018;201:106-14.

Nursalam M. Guidelines for Writing Literature Review Thesis and Systematic Review Thesis. 1st ed. Surabaya: Faculty of Nursing Universitas Airlangga Surabaya; 2020.

CM Hospital. Effects of antenatal complications, Apgar score and birth, 2020. Available at: https://cmhospital.in/. Accessed on 24 August 2021.

Gutbir Y, Wainstock T, Sheiner E, Segal I, Sergienko R, Landau D, et al. Low Apgar score in term newborns and long-term infectious morbidity: a population-based cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up. Eur J Pediatr. 2020;179(6):959-71.

Ndombo PK, Ekei QM, Tochie JN, Temgoua MN, Angong FTE, Ntock FN, et al. A cohort analysis of neonatal hospital mortality rate and predictors of neonatal mortality in a sub-urban hospital of Cameroon. Ital J Pediatr. 2017;43(1):52.

Schindler T, Smith L, Lui K, Bajuk B, Bolisetty S, New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Neonatal Intensive Care Units’ Data Collection. Causes of death in very preterm infants cared for in neonatal intensive care units: a population-based retrospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17(1):59.

Gebremedhin D, Berhe H, Gebrekirstos K. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in Public Hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):154798.

Stevic M, Simic D, Ristic N, Budic I, Marjanovic V, Srceva M, et al. Evaluation of factors for poor outcome in preterm newborns with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018;14:1965-73.

Matary A, Heena H, Sarheed AS, Ouda W, Shahrani DA, Wani TA, et al. Characteristics of neonatal Sepsis at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2019;12(5):666-72.

Bitew ZW, Alemu A, Ayele EG, Jember DA, Haile MT, Worku T. Incidence Density Rate of Neonatal Mortality and Predictors in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Pediatr. 2020;2020:3894026.

Ibishi VA, Isjanovska R, Malin AE. Early-onset neonatal infection in pregnancies with prelabor rupture of membranes in Kosovo: A major challenge. Turk J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;15(3):171-6.

Murthy S, Godinho MA, Guddattu V, Lewis LES, Nair NS. Risk factors of neonatal sepsis in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(4):215683.

Voskamp BJ, Peelen MJCS, Ravelli ACJ, Lee R, Mol BWJ, Pajkrt E, et al. Association between fetal sex, birthweight percentile and adverse pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(1):48-58.

Boghossian NS, Geraci M, Edwards EM, Horbar JD. Sex Differences in Mortality and Morbidity of Infants Born at Less Than 30 Weeks' Gestation. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):20182352.

Garfinkle J, Yoon EW, Alvaro R, Nwaesei C, Claveau M, Lee SK, et al. Trends in sex-specific differences in outcomes in extreme preterms: progress or natural barriers? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020;105(2):158-63.

Puopolo KM, Mukhopadhyay S, Hansen NI, Cotten CM, Stoll BJ, Sanchez PJ, et al. Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis. Pediatrics. 2017;140(5):20170925.

Razaz N, Cnattingius S, Joseph KS. Association between Apgar scores of 7 to 9 and neonatal mortality and morbidity: population based cohort study of term infants in Sweden. BMJ. 2019;365:l1656.

Frapie K. Special feature No. 2 consecutive special feature! Can be done from the first grade! National examination measures situation setting problem. Clin Stud. 2020;41(2):18-32.