A cross sectional study to evaluate needle stick injuries among health care workers in Malabar medical college, Calicut, Kerala, India

Ananthachari K. R., Divya C. V.


Background: Percutaneous injuries caused by needle sticks pose a significant risk of blood borne pathogens among health care workers. Many factors are involved in transmission of infections like HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C such as overuse of injections, lack of disposable syringes, safer needle devices, sharps disposal containers, passing instruments from hand to hand, lack of awareness and adequate training. Needle stick injuries (NSI) are under reported, this study helps to know the causes and other factors related to NSI for effective prevention.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted among all health care workers who consented to participated in the study in July 1st to July 31st 2016. 514 health workers were interviewed and given a pre-detested, semi-structured questionnaire was given to elicit information regarding the factors for causation ofNSI and its effective prevention.

Results: 21.1% (108) of the health care workers had NSI. 45.4% were interns, followed by nursing staff (26.8%). 55.5% (60) had history of  NSI while performing any surgeries or assisting procedures. Majority of them knew about the transmission of HIV (100%), Hepatitis B (99.1%) and Hepatitis C (81.4%) and Malaria (20.3). NSI reporting was observed at 46.2%. 88.2% (90) of them had completed their 3 dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccine, 48% (52) had received training on universal precautions.

Conclusions: NSI was seen more among interns and nursing staff. They had good knowledge regarding the diseases transmission due to NSI and Vaccination. Effective periodic training on universal precautions can prevent NSI.


Health care workers, NSI, Training

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