Analysis of temperament/mizaj of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a novel research

Shabir Ahmad Bhat, Shameem Ahmad Rather


Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a commonest health disorder affecting elderly men characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It is a non-malignant neoplasm of men with an incidence of approximately 20% in their 40s and reaches up to 90% in their 80s. Androgens play a vital role in its development. In Unani system of medicine, BPH can be traced under the headings of waram-i-unuq al-mathāna (swelling at the bladder neck) and insidād majrā-i-mathāna (bladder outlet obstruction). As per the basic fundamentals of the said system of medicine, a disease arises due to the humoral imbalance or distemperament. Knowing the temperament of men having LUTS associated with BPH will help in appropriate selection of herbs and other Unani medicinal remedies for its treatment and productive research. It might prove a breakthrough in managing BPH and decreasing burden on conventional medicines and their side-effects.

Methods: The current study was based on a questionnaire and examination of sixty (60) diagnosed cases of BPH, as per the standard temperament chart recommended in Unani literature.

Results: The study revealed that 73.3% of BPH patients were having phlegmatic temperament (balghami al-mizaj), 20% having sanguine (damwi al-mizaj) and 6.7% were of bilious temperament (safrawi al-mizaj).

Conclusions: BPH was found to be more prevalent among men with phlegmatic temperament (balghami al-mizaj) and hence is likely a phlegmatic disorder (marad-i-balghami) or in other words phlegmatic distemperament (su-e-mizaj balghami).


Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Mizaj, Phlegmatic, Temperament, Unani

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