Published: 2021-10-27

Trends of oesophageal carcinoma and increasing number of young patients with oesophageal carcinoma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Afra Samad, Safia Sartaj, Rafia Sartaj, Namra Naeem


Background: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is a cancer that develops in the gastrointestinal tract and is caused by a variety of circumstances. It has quite an uneven geographic distribution with male predominance and squamous cell carcinoma being most frequent type of oesophageal carcinoma in developing countries. As Pakistan lacks any proper cancer registry this study was needed to have an idea of the OC statistics in South Punjab region. Objective was to determine the prevalence of OC in the general population and in young people of South Punjab, Pakistan

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Two hundred and twenty-three patients who presented to Multitest lab from 2014 to 2018 were included in the study.

Results: The 186 patients were positive for OC. Sixty patients were below 40 years of age. Male to female ratio was 1.24:1. Most frequent symptom was dysphagia and squamous cell carcinoma was histological subtype.

Conclusions: In our study based on South Punjab region, oesophageal carcinoma has become a common condition and is more prevalent in males. It commonly involves upper oesophagus and squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent type. It can also be concluded that it is in increasing in young population of South Punjab.


Oesophageal carcinoma, Young patients, Cancer in South Punjab

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