Published: 2021-09-27

Cross sectional study of depression, anxiety and stress due to COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduate medical students from Maharashtra

Paras R. Waghmare, Ujwala U. Ukey, Sarita K. Sharma, Sumaiya A. Meman


Background: The ongoing pandemic due to novel corona virus has caused global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the great depression. Pandemic has led to essential supply shortage like daily needs medicine that led to haphazard among population. Worldwide increase in case numbers have increases anxiety among population and also increase the tremendous stress among students due to lack of educational activity. This affects psychology of students to move away from studies. Due to pandemic many students were unable to attend clinics that create anxiousness among them which led to anxiety and stress.

Methods: The survey was conducted among the undergraduate medical students across the state of Maharashtra. The online semi-structured questionnaire was developed with the aid of Google form, among various undergraduate medical students by using DASS-21 scale.

Results: In the present study, total 435 students responded and returned completely filled in questionnaire. Out of these 435 study participants, 213 (48.97%) were male students and remaining 222 (51.03%) were female students. Based on responses to the DASS-21 scale, study participants can be categorized as normal or with mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe depression, anxiety or stress.

Conclusions: The present study concludes that psychological health of the undergraduate medical students who participated for the survey is involved to a sizeable extent. Depression and anxiety and some or other degree of stress was detected in the participants as a common finding.



Corona virus, Medical undergraduates, Mental health, Pandemic, Psychological impact

Full Text:



Last JM, edr. A dictionary of epidemiology. 4th edition. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001: 62.

Jeffrey KS, Kenneth M. History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S223-7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China. Information for Healthcare Professionals. Available from: Accessed on 11 April 2020.

IJMR Research Articles on Coronavirus India & COVID-19. Special Issue on Coronavirus India & COVID-19. Available at: covid-19. Accessed on 11 Apr 2020.

Coronavirus Outbreak in India. Available at: Accessed on 18 September 2020.

“Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)”. World Health Organization. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020. Available at:­it­ true­that­COVID­19­does­not­spread­through­the­air. Accessed on 18 September 2020.

“How COVID-19 Spreads”. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020. Available at: https://www. Accessed on 18 September 2020.

“Transmission of COVID-19”. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 12 September 2020. Available at: https://www. Accessed on 18 September 2020.

COVID-19 pandemic in India. Wikipedia. Available from: Accessed on 18 September 2020.

“Here Comes the Coronavirus Pandemic: Now, after many fire drills, the world may be facing a real fire”. Editorial. The New York Times. 29 February 2020. Available from: https://www.nytimes. com/2020/02/29/opinion/sunday/corona-virus-usa.html. Accessed on 1 March 2020.

“The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn since the Great Depression”. IMF Blog. Available from: Accessed on 23 April 2020.

“A List of What’s Been Cancelled Because of the Coronavirus”. The New York Times. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020. Available at: links/5eac3250a6fdcc70509e3eb8/Coronavirus-Disease-2019-COVID-19-Prevention-and-Disinfection.pdf. Accessed on 18 September 2020.

Scipioni, Jade 18 March 2020. "Why there will soon be tons of toilet paper, and what food may be scarce, according to supply chain experts". CNBC. Retrieved 19 March 2020. Available at: Accessed on 18 September 2020.

Huang, Y. The Coronavirus Outbreak Could Disrupt the U.S. Drug Supply. Council on Foreign Relations. Available from: Accessed on 18 September 2020.

Watts J, Kommenda N (23 March 2020). “Coronavirus pandemic leading to huge drop in air pollution”. The Guardian. Available from: Accessed on 8 April 2020.

“Analysis: Coronavirus temporarily reduced China’s CO2 emissions by a quarter”. Carbon Brief. 19 February 2020. Available form: Accessed on 8 April 2020.

Khetan MS, Jaiswal KM, Vaishnao LS, Kewalramani M, Shah RJ. Effect of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of pre-medical students of Maharashtra. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2020;7:3524-30.

Al-Rabiaahab A, Temsahabc MH, Al-Eyadhy AA, Hasan GM, Al-Zamil F, Al-Subaie S, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) associated stress among medical students at a university teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(5):687-91.

Kafka AC. Shock, fear, and fatalism: as coronavirus prompts colleges to close, students grapple with uncertainty. The Chronical of Higher Education. 2020. Available from: article/Shock-FearFatalism-As/248240. Accessed on 11 April 2020.

Sahu P. Closure of universities due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus. 2020;12.

Tian-Ci Quek T, Tam WS, X Tran B, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Su-Hui Ho C, et al. The global prevalence of anxiety among medical students: a meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(15):2735.

Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33:335-43.