Published: 2021-09-27

Cause of amblyopia in adult patients: a cross-sectional study

Abdul Waheed, Nitika Kumari, Jamshed Ali, Gaurav Dubey, Vibha Kumari, Ragni Kumari, Yasmeen Shahid


Background: Amblyopia has been defined as a decrease of visual acuity for which no causes can be detected by the physical examination of the eye, caused by vision deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction. This study aims to determine the cause of amblyopia in adult patients at HAHC hospital South Delhi.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period from January 2018 till March 2018 among the patients in HAHC hospital. A comprehensive eye examination was used to analyse the visual condition.

Results: Amblyopia was diagnosed in 42 participants, with age-and gender-adjusted prevalence of 3.2%. Of these, 1.9% were unilateral cases, and 1.3% were bilateral cases. A major cause of amblyopia in this population was a refractive error, hence using spectacle correction and vision therapy for its initial management.

Conclusions:  This study has provided causes of amblyopia in an adult population. Amblyopia is a frequent cause of lifelong unilateral visual impairment.


Amblyopia, Refractive error, Strabismus

Full Text:



Cleary M. Efficacy of occlusion for strabismic amblyopia: can an optimal duration be identified. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84(6):572-8.

World Health Organization. Prevention of blindness and visual impairment. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2011. Available at: Accessed on 2019 Sep 24.

Adams GG, Karas MP. Effect of Amblyopia on employment prospects. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:380.

National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) Study: Phase II Field Test: Manual of Procedures. Los Angeles, Calif: NEI VFQ Field Test Co-ordinating Center, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). 2000.

International American journal of ophthalmology

Khan T. Is there a critical period for amblyopia therapy? Result of study on older anisometropic amblyopia. 2015;9(8):NC01-4.

Attebo K, Mitchell P, Cumming R, Smith W, Jolly N, Sparkes R. Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in an adult population. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:154-9.

Flynn JT, Cassady JC. Current trends in amblyopia therapy. Ophthalmology. 1978;85:428-50.

Mohan K, Saroha V, Sharma A. Successful occlusion therapy for amblyopia in 11- to 15-year-old children. J paediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41:89-95.

El Mallah MK, Chakravarthy U, Hart PM. Amblyopia: is visual loss permanent? Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:952-56.

Aldebasi YH. Prevalence of Amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015;22(1):86-91.

Oscar A, Cherninkova S, Haykin V. Amblyopia screening in Bulgaria. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2014;51(5):284-8.

Ying GS, Maguire MG, Cyert LA. Vision in Pre-schoolers (VIP) Study Group. Prevalence of vision disorders by racial and ethnic group among children participating in head start. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(3):630-6.

Powell C, Hatt SR. Vision screening for amblyopia in childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;8;(3):CD005020.

Wilson GA, Welch D. Does Amblyopia have a functional impact? Findings from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2013;41(2):127-34.

Van de Graaf ES, Van Kempen-du Saar H, Looman CW, Simonsz HJ. Utility analysis of disability caused by amblyopia and/or strabismus in a population-based, historic cohort. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248(12):1803-7.

Rahi JS, Cumberland PM, Peckham CS. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort. BMJ. 2006;332:820-5.

Ali J, Bakhshi ZH. Screening of convergence Disorder and Accommodation Disorder in Among School going Children Gorakhpur. 2021;7(10):2706-23.

Adams GG, Karas MP. Effect of amblyopia on employment prospects. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:380.