Coronavirus disease 2019: an overview


  • Ajna Prahalad Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Elmira, New York, USA
  • Varun Soti Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Elmira, New York, USA



SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Therapeutics, Vaccines


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused over four million deaths worldwide and continues to affect millions across the globe. This review aims to provide an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the progress made to counter COVID-19 through therapeutics and immunizations. We searched preclinical and clinical COVID-19 literature published between January 2018 through June 2021 on PubMed. The medical subject headings used in the literature search were COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment, Remdesivir, Cytokine Storm, Hydroxychloroquine, Epidemiology, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor, Vaccines, and Mitigation. There is credible evidence that shows that the spike protein in the SARS-CoV-2’s structure is crucial for the host to be infected. It spreads through different modes, primarily through aerosols and carriers. Pathophysiologically, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a cytokine storm leading to systemic inflammation, which can be fatal. Although treatment with Remdesivir and Dexamethasone and massive vaccinations have significantly reduced the mortality rate, COVID-19 remains a significant threat. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2’s different strains, notably the Delta variant, demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic is not over. More vaccine distribution and increased efforts in developing anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, social distancing, masking, and practicing good hygiene will be crucial in defeating COVID-19.

Author Biographies

Ajna Prahalad, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Elmira, New York, USA

Second year medical student, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Elmira Campus

Varun Soti, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Elmira, New York, USA

Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty


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How to Cite

Prahalad, A., & Soti, V. (2021). Coronavirus disease 2019: an overview. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 8(10), 5094–5100.



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