Published: 2021-08-27

Pattern of complementary feeding among infants: a pilot study

Pragnya Paramita Bhoi, Smruti Pragyan Sahoo, Sonali Mangaraj, Niyati Das, Purnima Sahoo, S. Bhaktiswarupa


Background: The world health organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, with the addition of complementary feeds at six months with continued breastfeeds until at least the age of two. This study aimed to assess the period and pattern of initiation of complementary feeding and to find out the prevalence of malnutrition among infants (6-12 months).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken by taking 50 infants with the help of purposive sampling technique at pediatric OPD of Pradyumna Bal Memorial Hospital, KIMS, Bhubaneswar. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the baseline information by face to face interview and Anthropometric examination was conducted to asess the growth pattern. Anthropometric measurements were interpreted by using WHO Anthro Analyzer software and statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 20 Software.

Results: The study findings revealed that most of the mother (64%) has initiated the Complementary feeding after 6 months of age, 88% mothers were continuing breastfeeding along with CF. No infants were given cow’s milk. There was significant association of initiation of complementary feeding with maternal education and source of information and age of the infant. Percentage of malnourished infants is 32%. Mothers were preferring to give formula food rather than the home made one.

Conclusions: The study concluded that late introduction of complementary feeding are still prevalent in our society. The most precious and vulnerable age group of our society are suffering from malnutrition. Antenatal counselling of mother and appropriate dietary modification should be done after thorough screening during antenatal and postnatal visit.



Complementary feeding, Breastfeeding, Malnutrition

Full Text:



Chane T, Bitew S, Mekonen T, Fekadu W. Initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children of age 6-23 months in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study. Pediatr Rep. 2017;9(4):64-9.

Nutrition. Available at: nutrition/index_breastfeeding.html. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. 2002. Available at: https://www.who. int/nutrition/publications/guiding_principles_compfeeding_breastfed.pdf. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Kliegman L. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 21st ed. Netherlands; Elsevier publication: 2005.

Liu L, Johnson HL, Cousens S, Perin J, Scott S, Lawn JE, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000, Lancet. 2012;379: 2151-61.

Islam S, Mahanta TG, Sarma R, Hiranya S. Nutritional status of under 5 children belonging to tribal population living in riverine (Char) areas of Dibrugarh district, Assam. Indian J Commu Med. 2014;39(3):169.

Resource material nutrition and its components. Available at: 102.pdf. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Infant and young child feeding. Available at: infant-and-young-child-feeding. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Child growth standards. Available at: https://www. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Growth. Available at: https://www.who. int/nutgrowthdb/about/anthro-survey-analyser-quickguide.pdf. Accessed on 20 May 2021.

Patil N. View of study of complementary feeding practices in mothers of infants aged 6-12 months, Pediatric review. Int J Pediatr Res. 2008;45:78-84.

Ahmad A, Madanijah S, Dwiriani C, Kolopaking R. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6–23 months old: formative study in Aceh, Indonesia. Nutr Res Pract. 2018;12(6):512.

Rathaur VK, Pathania M, Pannu C, Jain A, Dhar M, Pathania N, et al. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7(1):45.

Jabri L, Rosenthal DM, Benton L, Lakhanpaul M. Complementary feeding practices and nutrient intakes of children aged 6–24 months from Bangladeshi background living in Tower Hamlets, East London: a feasibility study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2020;39(1):4.

Srivastava G, Bhatnagar S, Khan KA. Complementary feeding practices of children (6 months-23 months) in and around Lucknow, India. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2017;5(1):114.

Rastogi T, Srivastava G, Awasthi S. Complementary feeding practices among children (6-23 months) in rural lucknow, north india: a cross-sectional study. Indian J Nutr Diet. 2019; 56(2):184-96.

Dhami MV, Ogbo FA, Osuagwu UL, Agho KE. Prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in India: a regional analysis. BMC. 2019;19(1):1034.

Patil N, Bawa R , Patil RR ,View of Study of complementary feeding practices in mothers of infants aged 6-12 months Pediatric Review. Int J Pediatr Res. 2017;23:56-9.