Published: 2021-08-27

Efficacy Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis serotype H-14 (Bti H-14) for control Aedes spp. density in Denpasar, Bali

Suwito ., Sang G. Purnama, Pasek Kardiwinata


Background: A liquid bioinsecticide formulation containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Serotype H-14 (Bti H-14) was tested in the field in household containers. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of Bti H-14 biolarvicide in controlling the density of Aedes spp. Larvae.

Methods: This study was conducted in two phases of testing. First, to test the effective dose with 5 doses, namely (50 ul, 40 ul, 30 ul, 20 ul, and 10 ul) in 2.5 liters of water. Furthermore, the number of deaths was calculated after 24 hours of treatment and control by doing four repetitions. In the second phase, by conducting tests on containers in the household as many as 3171 containers were continuously observed every month, given Bti H-14 for 6 months. Observations were made before and after the application of Bti H-14 on larva density, mosquito density, and dengue cases. Data analysis was performed using paired t-test. Bti H-14 formulation to kill 50% of mosquito larvae (LC50) within 6 hours requires a concentration of 4 µl per liter.

Results: Bti H-14 liquid formulation with delta-endotoxin and spores content of 600 ITU per ml or 1.2x109 CFU is effective in reducing larva density in household containers if done regularly.

Conclusions: Bti H-14 liquid formulation is proven to be effective and easy to use for the control of Aedes larvae.


Aedes aegypti, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bali

Full Text:



Wasserman S, Tambyah PA, Lim PL. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;48:98-103.

Wilder-Smith A, Gubler DJ, Weaver SC, Monath TP, Heymann DL, Scott TW. Epidemic arboviral diseases: priorities for research and public health. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(3):e101-6.

Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature. 2013;496(7446):504-7.

Osorio-De-Castro CGS, Miranda ES, De Freitas CM, De Camargo KR, Cranmer HH. The Zika Virus outbreak in Brazil: Knowledge gaps and challenges for risk reduction. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(6):960-5.

Shiferaw B, Lam P, Tuthill S, Choudhry H, Syed S, Ahmed S, et al. The Chikungunya Epidemic: A look at five cases. IDCases. 2015;2(4):89-91.

Putra RE, Ahmad I, Prasetyo DB, Susanti S. Detection of insecticide resistance in the larvae of some Aedes aegypti ( Diptera: Culicidae ) strains from Java, Indonesia to Temephos, Malathion and Permethrin. Int J Mosq Res. 2016;3(3):23-8.

Satoto TBT, Satrisno H, Lazuardi L, Diptyanusa A, Purwaningsih, Rumbiwati, et al. Insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti: An impact from human urbanization? PLoS One. 2019;14(6):1-13.

Hamid PH, Prastowo J, Ghiffari A, Taubert A, Hermosilla C. Aedes aegypti resistance development to commonly used insecticides in Jakarta, Indonesia. PLoS One. 2017;12(12):1-11.

Pamela D. Moore, Clement G. Yedjou and PBT. Malathion-Induced Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 ) Cells. Env Toxicol. 2010;25(3):221-6.

Aktar W, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A. Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: Their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2009;2(1):1-12.

Flacio E, Engeler L, Tonolla M, Lüthy P, Patocchi N. Strategies of a thirteen year surveillance programme on Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) in southern Switzerland. Parasites and Vectors. 2015;8(1):1-18.

Boyce R, Lenhart A, Kroeger A, Velayudhan R, Roberts B, Horstick O. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) for the control of dengue vectors: Systematic literature review. Trop Med Int Heal. 2013;18(5):564-77.

Carvalho KDS, Crespo MM, Araújo AP, Da Silva RS, De Melo-Santos MAV, De Oliveira CMF, et al. Long-term exposure of Aedes aegypti to Bacillus thuringiensis svar. Israelensis did not involve altered susceptibility to this microbial larvicide or to other control agents. Parasites and Vectors. 2018;11(1):1-12.

Amorim QS, da Rocha Bauzer LGS, Aparecida Braga I, Lima JBP. Evaluation of the Persistence of Three Larvicides Used To Control Aedes aegypti In Arapiraca, Northeastern Brazil. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2019;35(3):192-9.

Lee HL, Chen CD, Masri SM, Chiang YF, Chooi KH, Benjamin S. Impact of larviciding with a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis formulation, vectobac wg®, on dengue mosquito vectors in a dengue endemic site in Selangor state, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39(4):601-9.

Setha T, Chantha N, Benjamin S, Socheat D. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(9):1-17.

Chung YK, Lam-Phua SG, Chua YT, Yatiman R. Evaluation of biological and chemical insecticide mixture against Aedes aegypti larvae and adults by thermal fogging in Singapore. Med Vet Entomol. 2001;15(3):321-7.

Uragayala1 S, Raghavendra Kamaraju2 S. Field testing & evaluation of the efficacy & duration of effectiveness of a biolarvicide, Bactivec® SC (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis SH-14) in Bengaluru, India. Indian J Med Res. 2018;147:299-307.

Sulaiman S, Pawanchee Z, Wahab A, Jamal J. Evaluation of Abate 1-SG and Vectobac G in bromeliads infested with dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Sallehudinl. Med Entomol Zool. 1999;50(2):165-7.

Mohiddin A, Lasim AM, Zuharah WF. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2016;6(4):295-300.

Hall DL, Frcpc F. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner . Further reproduction prohibited without. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):556.

Mittal PK. Biolarvicides in vector control: Challenges and prospects. J Vector Borne Dis. 2003;40(1–2):20-32.

Am- IS, Sphaericus B, Eritja R. Scientific Note Laboratory Tests on the Efficacy of Vbc60035 , a Combined Larvicidal Formulation of Bacillus Thuringiensis. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2013;29(3):280-3.

Land M. Biological control of mosquitoes using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis : a pilot study of effects on target organisms , Biological control of mosquitoes using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis : a pilot study of effects on target organisms. Mistra EviEM Pilot Study. 2014.

Sukesi TW, Sulistyawati, Hendrawati SA. Effectivity of Bacterial Suspension Bacillus thuringiensis Var Israelensis in Killing Aedes aegypti L. Mosquito Larvae. Bangladesh J Med Sci. 2019;18(04):706-10.

Williams GM, Faraji A, Unlu I, Healy SP, Farooq M, Gaugler R, et al. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictusin residential neighborhoods: From optimization to operation. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):1-10.

Lutinski JA, Kuczmainski AG, De Quadros SO, Busato MA, Weirich CM, Malgueiro A, et al. Bacillus Thuringiensis Var. Israelensis Como Alternativa Para O Controle Populacional De Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). Ciência e Nat. 2017;39(2):211.