Classification and types of flaps in endodontic surgery


  • Wael Hisham Rajkhan Department of Endodontics, Khulais General Hospital, Khulais, Saudi Arabia
  • Naif Mayouf Alrasheedi General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Uyun Aljaw, Saudi Arabia
  • Hatton Khalid Alsaper College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Reem Abdulwahed Aljishi General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Qatif, Saudi Arabia
  • Reem Badi Alahmadi Bright Smile Horizon Clinic, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Rogaya Hassan Abdulbagi College of Dentistry, Alfarabi Colleges, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Kholoud Shergawi Kernshi College of Dentistry, Alfarabi Colleges, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Afnan Hassan Almalki Bright Smile Horizon Clinic, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Sarah Hussain Aloqayli College of Dentistry, Alfarabi Colleges, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Hanan Sulaiman Alrehaili College of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  • Ghaida Ghazi Aljohani College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia



Flaps, Endodontics, Management, Classification


The success of endodontic surgeries can be significantly associated with the selected dental flap. Many flaps have been reported among studies in the literature with variable frequencies of advantages and disadvantages and with different indications for each flap. This literature review discusses the most commonly reported types of endodontics flaps along with the reported advantages and disadvantages, in addition to the uses, applications, and most probable indications and contraindications for each designed flap. Among the reported flap designs, clinical success and favorable outcomes were observed with the ones that limited the damage to the root-attached tissues. Moreover, crestal bone loss has been reported to be minimal when using the full mucoperiosteal flap designs. Many previous studies have reported that using triangular and rectangular flap designs has been associated with favorable events regarding crestal bone loss, with the observed complete healing of the resorption damaging events and absent alternations of the heights of the crestal bone that were potentially affected. Further details of each flap design are provided within the full manuscript of this article based on the obtained evidence from previous investigations.


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How to Cite

Rajkhan, W. H., Alrasheedi, N. M., Alsaper, H. K., Aljishi, R. A., Alahmadi, R. B., Abdulbagi, R. H., Kernshi, K. S., Almalki, A. H., Aloqayli, S. H., Alrehaili, H. S., & Aljohani, G. G. (2021). Classification and types of flaps in endodontic surgery. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 8(8), 4073–4077.



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