Published: 2021-08-27

Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among selected people in Tulus area, South Darfur State, Sudan

Adel A. Maki, Khalid Hajissa, Gafar A. Ali


Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is a major public health issue in Sudan. The disease is endemic in many rural communities across the country.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among selected individual in the city of Tulus, South Darfur state, Sudan. One hundred terminal urine samples were collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using standard filtration technique.

Results: A total of 100 individual were enrolled in the study with a mean (±SD) age of 17.7±0.73 years. Out of them, 62 (62%) were found to be infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The statistical analysis showed significant association with gender (p=0.043) with higher prevalence 70.9 % (39/55) in female than males 51.1 % (23/45). Majority of the S. haematobium infections were classified as intense infection (82%, 51/62) with egg count ≥50 eggs/10 ml urine, while gross haematuria was observed in 10% of urine samples.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the study participants was remarkably high. However, further studies, including large sample size will be essential to assess the burden of the disease in the study area.


Schistosoma haematobium, South Darfur state, Gross haematuria, Egg intensity, Sudan

Full Text:



Senghor B, Diallo A, Sylla SN, Doucouré S, Ndiath MO, Gaayeb L, et al. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in the district of Niakhar, region of Fatick, Senegal. Para Vect. 2014;3(7):5.

Okwori AJ, Sidi M, Ngwai Y, Obiekezie S, Makut M, Chollom S, et al. Prevalence of schistosomiasis among primary school children in Gadabuke District, Toto LGA, North Central Nigeria. Br Microbiol Res J. 2014;4(3):255-61.

Erismann S, Diagbouga S, Odermatt P, Knoblauch AM, Gerold J, Shrestha A, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Para Vect. 2016;9(1):554.

Dejon-Agobé JC, Edoa JR, Honkpehedji YJ, Zinsou JF, Adégbitè BR, Ngwese MM, et al. Schistosoma haematobium infection morbidity, praziquantel effectiveness and reinfection rate among children and young adults in Gabon. Para Vect. 2019;12(1):1-11.

Li EY, Gurarie D, Lo NC, Zhu X, King CH. Improving public health control of schistosomiasis with a modified WHO strategy: a model-based comparison study. Lancet Glob Health. 2019;7(10): e1414-22.

Muhammad IA, Abdullahi K, Bala AY. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Wamakko Local Government, Sokoto State, Nigeria. J Basic App Zool. 2019;80(1):22.

Afifi A, Ahmed A-AA, Sulieman Y, Pengsakul T. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis among villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan. Iran J Parasitol. 2016;11(1):110.

Hajissa K, Muhajir AEM, Eshag HA, Alfadel A, Nahied E, Dahab R, et al. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among school children in Um-Asher Area, Khartoum, Sudan. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):779.

Cha S, Elhag MS, Lee Y-H, Cho D-S, Ismail HAHA, Hong S-T. Epidemiological findings and policy implications from the nationwide schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis survey in Sudan. Para Vect. 2019;12(1):429.

Lee Y-H, Lee J-S, Jeoung H-G, Kwon I-S, Mohamed AAWS, Hong S-T. Epidemiological Survey on schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis among village residents of the rural river basin area in White Nile State, Sudan. Korean J Parasitol. 2019;57(2):135.

Elsammani NA, Adam AA, Mater AA, Osman M. Prevalence of schistosomiasis among school children in Bahri locality, Sudan. Int J Res. 2019;7(9):45-9.

Deribe K, Eldaw A, Hadziabduli S, Kailie E, Omer MD, Mohammed AE, et al. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions. Para Vect. 2011; 4(1):14.

Ahmed A, Afifi A, Adam I. High prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection in Gereida Camp, in southern Darfur, Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103(8):741-3.

Sturrock HJ, Picon D, Sabasio A, Oguttu D, Robinson E, Lado M, et al. Integrated mapping of neglected tropical diseases: epidemiological findings and control implications for northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(10):45-9.

Malek EA. Distribution of the intermediate hosts of bilharziasis in relation to hydrography: With special reference to the Nile Basin and the Sudan. Bull World Health Org. 1958;18(5-6):691.

Taha Q, Elshazali O, Ahmed A. Distribution of urinary schistosomiasis among school children at elkeriab and tayba elkababish villages, East Nile Locality, Khartoum State, Sudan. J Pediatr Neonat Care. 2019;9(4):117-9.

Muhajir A, Hajissa K, Mohamed Z, Aal A. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Children in Al-kalakla, Khartoum, Sudan. World Appl Sci J. 2017; 35(2):219-22.

Abou-Zeid AH, Abkar TA, Mohamed RO. Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):643.

Sulieman Y, Eltayeb RE, Pengsakul T, Afifi A, Zakaria MA. Epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in the Alsaial Alsagair village, River Nile State, Sudan. Iran J Parasitol. 2017; 12(2):284.

Kapito-Tembo AP, Mwapasa V, Meshnick SR, Samanyika Y, Banda D, Bowie C, et al. Prevalence distribution and risk factors for Schistosoma hematobium infection among school children in Blantyre, Malawi. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(1):32-9.

Degarege A, Mekonnen Z, Levecke B, Legesse M, Negash Y, Vercruysse J, et al. Prevalence of schistosoma haematobium infection among school-age children in afar area, Northeastern Ethiopia. PloS one. 2015;10(8):25-9.

Ismail HAHA, Hong S-T, Babiker ATEB, Hassan RMAE, Sulaiman MAZ, Jeong H-G, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis among school children in the White Nile River basin, Sudan. Para Vect. 2014;7(1):478.