DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20213002

Serum testosterone levels and clinical signs of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes

Manouchehr Iranparvar, Firouz Amani, Mohammad-Javad Naghizadeh

Abstract


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that its association with low level of testosterone has already been shown in many studies. Considering the role of testosterone hormone in impotency, fatigue, and bone mass deficiency this study aimed to evaluate the total and free testosterone levels and clinical signs of hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, sixty-five diabetic male patients aged 35-70 years were randomly selected and enrolled to the study. The necessary information such as patient demographics, BMI, past medical history, drug history, and history of smoking, education level and employment were completed by a checklist. Then, the patients were evaluated for total and free testosterone levels and symptoms related to decreased testosterone, hypogonadism symptoms by ADAM questionnaire. Finally, the data were statistical analyzed by spss version 21.

Results: The mean age of patients was 57.12±4.7 years with age range of 38-69 years. According to the ADAM questionnaire, 51 (78.4%) of the patients were positive and 14 (21.6%) were negative. 16 (24.6%) of all patients had hypogonadism. Among ADAM positive patients, 46 (90.1%) had erectile dysfunction and 33 (64.7%) had decreased libido. Most people (75%) with hypogonadism had BMI more than 30.

Conclusions: Testosterone levels are commonly found low in diabetic men, most of whom have symptoms of hypogonadism. Body mass index is known as an independent risk factor for hypogonadism in T2D men. There was also a significant correlation between free testosterone levels and hypogonadism.

 


Keywords


Testosterone, Hypogonadism, Men, Diabetes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atlantis E, Fahey P, Martin S. Predictive value of serum testosterone for type 2 diabetes risk assessment in men. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016;16(1):26.

Obi PC, Anyanwu AC, Nwatu CB, Ekwueme N. Pattern of serum testosterone and glycated haemoglobin among adult males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction attending a tertiary hospital in south eastern Nigeria. Br J Med Med Res. 2016;18(181):1-8.

Onah C, Meludu S, Dioka C, Nnamah N, Nnoli J. The levels of testosterone, zinc, manganese and selenium in type 2 diabetic patient in South-Eastern Nigeria. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;76(2):56-64.

Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Siasos G, Oikonomou E, Varlas J, et al. Low total testosterone levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome in elderly men: the role of body weight, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation; the Ikaria study. Rev Diab Stud. 2016;10(1):27-38.

Cheung KK, Luk AO, So WY. Testosterone level in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and related metabolic effects: A review of current evidence. J Diabetes Investig. 2015;6(2):112-23.

Al Hayek AA, Khader YS, Jafal S, Khawaja N, Robert AA, Ajlouni K. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study. J Family Commu Med. 2013;20(3): 179-84.

Dhindsa S, Miller MG, McWhirter CL, Mager DE, Ghanim H, Chaudhuri A, et al. Testosterone concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic obese men. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(6):1186-92.

Kapoor D, Aldred H, Clark S, Channer KS, Jones TH. Clinical and biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: correlations with bioavailable testosterone and visceral adiposity. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):911-7.

Dhindsa S, Prabhakar S, Sethi M, Bandyopadhyay A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Frequent occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5462-8.

Chandel A, Dhindsa S, Topiwala S, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Testosterone concentration in young patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;31(10): 2013-7.

Grossmann M, Gianatti EJ, Zajac JD. Testosterone and type 2 diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17(3):247-56.

Grossmann, M. Testosterone and glucose metabolism in men: Current concepts and controversies. J Endocrinol. 2014;53(3):102-11.

Ghazi S, Zohdy W, Elkhiat Y, Shamloul R. Serum testosterone levels in diabetic men with and without erectile dysfunction. Andrologia. 2012;44(6):373-80.

Rato L, Alves MG, Duarte AI, Santos MS, Moreira PI, Cavaco JE, Oliveira PF. Testosterone deficiency induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus impairs glucose metabolism and favors glycogenesis in mature rat Sertoli cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;66:1-10.

Shin JY, Park EK, Park BJ, Shim JY, Lee HR. High-normal Glucose Levels in Non-diabetic and Pre-diabetic Men Are Associated with Decreased Testosterone Levels. Korean J Fam Med. 2012; 33(3):152-6.