Nocturnal enuresis: etiology, management and the impact on different age groups

Wedyan Salem Basaif, Atheer Marzouq Alamri, Abdualrhman Ali Alamri, Mohammed Wasel Alkhudhayri, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alamri, Abdulrahim Mohammed Alamri, Bandar Omar Alsahn, Abdullah Zamil Almani, Mahdi Abdullah Alayafi, Mohanad Jebril Bosili, Ahmed Abdulrahman Alshehri


Nocturnal enuresis or night time incontinence is a common condition that usually affects children and can be associated with significant psychological effects on the affected child if left untreated. It can be defined as night time wetting of the bed that usually occurs in children that are ≥5 years old. In this literature review, the aim was to discuss the etiology and management of nocturnal enuresis and the impact of the condition on the different age groups. Management of the underlying comorbidities, taking care of the overactive bladder and dealing with the potential psychological conditions might be the main key factors to nocturnal enuresis. Many pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed for these patients. However, the success rates of applying behavioral management approaches have been reported to be the highest as compared to other approaches. Early interventions should be applied for children that have multiple risk factors or with parents that once suffered from the condition as genetics were reported in the literature to have a significant role in the development of nocturnal enuresis. Pharmacological therapies have also been reported as effective modalities in resistant cases and desmopressin was reported to achieve a 100% success rate if used with alarm therapy. However, clinicians should care for the potential adverse events when approaching the pharmacological modalities.


Nocturnal enuresis, Pediatrics, Management, Epidemiology, Etiology

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