DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20212012

A cross sectional study on household dependence on well water, source of contamination and well protection measures adopted by an urban and rural population in Kollam, Kerala

Jeffy Binu, Halma Salam, Jibina K. A., Fathahiya Fazil, Hasnath K. T., Greeshma S.

Abstract


Background: Wells are a common ground water source readily explored to meet community water requirement. Open wells of Kerala have the problem of bacterial contamination, which causes diarrhea diseases especially in children. Close proximity of well to septic tank, waste pit and cattle shed can be considered as a leading cause of contamination of water. The present study had gone into the details of dependence of dug well, possible source of contamination and protective measures taken for drinking water safely by various households in both urban and rural population.

Methods: Cross sectional study design applied in order to address the objectives of the study. Using systematic random sampling techniques 80 households were selected from urban and rural areas. Pretested interview schedule were used as the data collection tool.

Results: 100% of households are depending on dug well for all their use like drinking, cooking, cleaning etc. 95% households treat water and among them 93.4% boil water before drinking. 40% of houses followed well protection measures. Significant association was found between urban and rural set-up in the distance of well from septic tank (p value is 0.004<0.01). There is statistically significant association in frequency of chlorination in urban and rural population (p value is 0.015<0.05). Occurrence of diarrhea was found to be nil in past two weeks from the time of data collection among under-fives.

Conclusions: Disease like diarrhea can be prevented in under-fives by following well protection measures and boiling water before drinking in both urban and rural areas.


Keywords


Well water, Chlorination, Water treatment

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ananth M, Rajesh R, Amjith R, Valamparampil MJ, Harikrishnan M, Resmi MS, et al. Contamination of Household Open Wells in an Urban Area of Trivandrum, Kerala State, India: A Spatial Analysis of Health Risk Using Geographic Information System. Environ Health Insights. 2018;12:1178630218806892.

Megha PU, Kavya P, Murugan S, Harikumar PS. Sanitation Mapping of Groundwater Contamination in a Rural Village of India. J Environ Protect. 2015;6:34-44.

Varma A. Groundwater resource and governance in Kerala: Status, Issues and Prospects. Forum for Policy Dialogue on Water Conflicts in India, Pune. 2017.

Prakasam VR. National Seminar on Ecology, Environmental and Development 25-27, Jan 2013, Solution for drinking water issues of rural Kerala, India. Int Quart J Env Sci. 2013;111:157-9.

Geremew A, Mengistie B, Alemayehu E, Lantagne DS, Mellor J, Sahilu G. Point-of-use water chlorination among urban and rural households with under-five-year children: a comparative study in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Eastern Ethiopia. J Water Sanitation Hygiene Develop. 2018;8(3):468-80.

Rosa G, Kelly P, Clasen T. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94(2):445-55.

Clasen T, McLaughlin C, Nayaar N, Boisson S, Gupta R, Desai D, Shah N. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(3):407-13.

Brown J, Sobsey MD. Boiling as household water treatment in Cambodia: a longitudinal study of boiling practice and microbiological effectiveness. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87(3):394-8.

National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ICF Macro. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ICF Macro. 2011.

Boisson S, Stevenson M, Shapiro L, Kumar V, Singh LP, Ward D, Clasen T. Effect of household-based drinking water chlorination on diarrhoea among children under five in Orissa, India: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2013;10(8):1001497.