DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20211998

The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients seeking treatment other than psychiatric conditions: a cross-sectional study

S. Karunakara Moorthi, K. Charan Muraleedharan, Radhika Prasannakumar, Resmy Radhakrishnan, Arun Kulathinal L.

Abstract


Background: There is a bidirectional relationship between psychiatric symptoms and medical disorders. Covert psychiatric symptoms may worsen the course of medical disorders. People abstain from getting treatment for psychiatric symptoms because of multiple reasons.

Methods: The study aimed to estimate the presence of psychiatric symptoms among General Medicine patients. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was undertaken among the patients at the General Medicine OPDs of National Homoeopathy Research Institute In Mental Health, Kottayam, Kerala. The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ)-20 screening tool was used to extract the data.

Results: A total of 3213 patients participated in the survey. Out of the total subjects who responded to the questionnaire, 516 (16.1%) were having symptoms of depression, 550 (17.1%) were having anxiety, 279 (8.7%) of the respondents were having both Anxiety and depression and 1540 (47.9%) were having somatic symptoms.

Conclusions: The prevalence of the psychiatric symptoms is often overlooked due to the underlying chronic conditions and patients may not give priority for such treatment. Estimating the exact prevalence will help early identification of disease conditions to prevent the disease from deterioration, provide better treatment opportunity, avoid the associated risks, and make the patient, as well as family members aware about the disease A holistic approach, is needed especially in chronic conditions and Homoeopathy and other AYUSH systems can play a major role.


Keywords


Psychiatric symptoms, SRQ-20, Prevalence, Cross sectional survey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Herrman H, Saxena S, Moodie R. World Health Organization, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, University of Melbourne, editors. Promoting mental health: concepts, emerging evidence, practice. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2005;288.

Henderson C, Evans-Lacko S, Thornicroft G. Mental Illness Stigma, Help Seeking, and Public Health Programs. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(5):777-80.

Robinson P, Turk D, Jilka S, Cella M. Measuring attitudes towards mental health using social media: investigating stigma and trivialisation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019;54(1):51-8.

Lincoln TM, Arens E, Berger C, Rief W. Can Antistigma Campaigns Be Improved? A Test of the Impact of Biogenetic Vs Psychosocial Causal Explanations on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes to Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34(5):984-94.

Yap MBH, Reavley N, Jorm AF. Where would young people seek help for mental disorders and what stops them? Findings from an Australian national survey. J Affect Disord. 2013;147(1–3):255-61.

The Paradox of Self‐Stigma and Mental Illness - Corrigan - 2002 - Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice - Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1093/clipsy.9.1.35. Accessed on 22nd August 2020.

Kumbhar UT, Dhumale GB, Kumbhar UP. Self Reporting Questionnaire as a tool to diagnose psychiatric morbidity. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2:51-4.

Garg K, Kumar CN, Chandra PS. Number of psychiatrists in India: Baby steps forward, but a long way to go. Indian J Psychiatry. 2019;61(1):104.

Bhagwanjee A, Parekh A, Paruk Z, Petersen I, Subedar H. Prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders in an adult African rural community in South Africa. Psychol Med. 1998;28(5):1137–47.

Ventevogel P, Nassery R. Properties of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) as screening instruments used in primary care in Afghanistan. 8.

Netsereab TB, Kifle MM, Tesfagiorgis RB, Habteab SG, Weldeabzgi YK, Tesfamariam OZ. Validation of the WHO self-reporting questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) item in primary health care settings in Eritrea. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2018;12:61.

Sartorius N, Janca A. Psychiatric assessment instruments developed by the World Health Organization. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1996;31(2):55-69.

Shaji KS, Raju D, Sathesh V, Krishnakumar P, Punnoose VP, Kiran PS, et al. Psychiatric morbidity in the community: A population based-study from Kerala. Indian J Psychiatry. 2017;59(2):149-56.

Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Phillips MR, et al. Global Mental Health 1 No health without mental health. 2007;370:19.

Sagar R, Dandona R, Gururaj G, Dhaliwal RS, Singh A, Ferrari A, et al. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(2):148-61.

GBD India Compare | IHME Viz Hub [Internet]. http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/india. Accessed on 23rd August 2020.

Harris EC, Barraclough B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry J Ment Sci. 1997;170:205-28.

Wei Y, McGrath PJ, Hayden J, Kutcher S. Mental health literacy measures evaluating knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking: a scoping review. BMC Psychiatry [Internet]. 2015;15.

Kohrt BA, Asher L, Bhardwaj A, Fazel M, Jordans MJD, Mutamba BB, et al. The Role of Communities in Mental Health Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Review of Components and Competencies. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2018;15(6).

Thornicroft G, Chatterji S, Evans-Lacko S, Gruber M, Sampson N, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, et al. Undertreatment of people with major depressive disorder in 21 countries. Br J Psychiatry J Ment Sci. 2017;210(2):119-24.

Barreto do Carmo MB, Santos LM dos, Feitosa CA, Fiaccone RL, Silva NB da, Santos DN dos, et al. Screening for common mental disorders using the SRQ-20 in Brazil: what are the alternative strategies for analysis? Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2017;40(2):115-22.

APA - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 Fifth Edition. https://www.appi.org/Diagnostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_Disorders_DSM-5_Fifth_Edition. Accessed on 7th September 2020.

J. Katon Wayne. Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(1):7-23.

Katon W, Russo J, Lin EHB, Heckbert SR, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EJ, et al. Depression and diabetes: factors associated with major depression at five-year follow-up. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(6):570-9.

Katon W, Lin EHB, Kroenke K. The association of depression and anxiety with medical symptom burden in patients with chronic medical illness. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007;29(2):147-55.

Ferrari AJ, Charlson FJ, Norman RE, Patten SB, Freedman G, Murray CJL, et al. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. PLoS Med. 2013;10(11):e1001547.

Picco L, Subramaniam M, Abdin E, Vaingankar JA, Chong SA. Gender differences in major depressive disorder: findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study. Singapore Med J. 2017;58(11):649-55.

Bulloch AG, Williams JV, Lavorato DH, Patten SB. The relationship between major depression and marital disruption is bidirectional. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1172-7.

Mansur RB, Brietzke E, McIntyre RS. Is there a “metabolic-mood syndrome”? A review of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;52:89-104.

Ghaemmohamadi MS, Behzadifar M, Ghashghaee A, Mousavinejad N, Ebadi F, Saeedi Shahri SS, et al. Prevalence of depression in cardiovascular patients in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis from 2000 to 2017. J Affect Disord. 2018;227:149-55.

Lichtman Judith H., Bigger J. Thomas, Blumenthal James A., Frasure-Smith Nancy, Kaufmann Peter G., Lespérance François, et al. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease. Circulation. 2008;118(17):1768-75.

Rahim RA. Self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Malaysian rheumatology centre - prevalence and correlates. 2018;73(4):7.

Torta R, Pennazio F, Ieraci V. Anxiety and depression in rheumatologic diseases: the relevance of diagnosis and management. Reumatismo. 2014;66(1):92-7.

Kleiber B, Jain S, Trivedi MH. Depression and Pain. Psychiatry Edgmont. 2005;2(5):12–8.

Kojima M, Kojima T, Suzuki S, Takahashi N, Funahashi K, Kato D, et al. Alexithymia, depression, inflammation, and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2014;66(5):679-86.

Kroenke K, Wu J, Bair MJ, Krebs EE, Damush TM, Tu W. Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression: a 12-month longitudinal analysis in primary care. J Pain Off J Am Pain Soc. 2011;12(9):964-73.

Shah D, Rai P, Dwibedi N, Sambamoorthi U. Treatment for Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adults with Arthritis. Psychiatr Q. 2018;89(1):129-40.

Kumar A, Kumar K, Swarup P, Goel S, Tomar AS. A study to find depression in patients attending dermatological OPD in a teaching hospital. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5(2):449-52.

Ahmed AE, Al-Dahmash AM, Al-Boqami QT, Al-Tebainawi YF. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2016;16(2):e217-23.

Dalgard FJ, Gieler U, Tomas-Aragones L, Lien L, Poot F, Jemec GBE, et al. The psychological burden of skin diseases: a cross-sectional multicenter study among dermatological out-patients in 13 European countries. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135(4):984-91.

Fornaro M, Iovieno N, Clementi N, Boscaro M, Paggi F, Balercia G, et al. Diagnosis of co-morbid axis-I psychiatric disorders among women with newly diagnosed, untreated endocrine disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry Off J World Fed Soc Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11(8):991-6.

Bathla M, Singh M, Relan P. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(4):468-74.

Shoib S, Ahmad J, Rashid A, Shah H, Mushtaq R, Malik M. Psychiatric aspects in endocrinolgical disorders: Identifying depressive and anxiety in endocrine patients attending outpatient department - A Study from General Hospital in Kashmir (India). 2016;9(3):6.