DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20211392

Association of passive smoking and lung cancer: Is there substantial evidence to prove the causation?

Sudhir Kumar Ambati

Abstract


Cigarette smoking plays a crucial role in the development of lung cancer. Tobacco smoke positively influences lung cancer development in both smokers and never or non-smokers. The influence of passive smoke on lung cancer development is associated with toxic substances that cause chronic inflammation in the respiratory systems. Frequent or high exposure to second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke causes respiratory infections that impair lung function and triggers lung cancer development through cell damage, mitosis, and apoptosis. The toxic substances found in second-hand smoke, including carcinogens, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and nitrosamines, have a significant association with squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Although some previously conducted studies showed no significant association between passive smoking and lung cancer, recent studies provide substantial evidence between their associations. Thus, exposure to passive smoke increases the risks of lung cancer.


Keywords


Lung cancer, Small cell lung carcinoma, Large cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Passive smoking, Environmental tobacco smoke, Second-hand smoke

Full Text:

PDF

References


Furrukh M. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer: Perception-changing facts. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013;13(3):345-58.

Hymowitz N. Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer: Pediatric Roots. Lung Cancer Int. 2012;2012:790841.

Remen T, Pintos J, Abrahamowicz M, Siemiatycki J. Risk of lung cancer in relation to various metrics of smoking history: a case-control study in Montreal. BMC Cancer. 2018;18(1):1275.

Barta JA, Powell CA, Wisnivesky JP. Global Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. Ann Glob Health. 2019;85(1):8.

Naeem Z. Second-hand smoke - ignored implications. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2015;9(2):5-6.

Cao S, Yang C, Gan Y, Lu Z. The Health Effects of Passive Smoking: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Based on Observational Epidemiological Evidence. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):0139907.

Du Y, Cui X, Sidorenkov G, Groen HJM, Vliegenthart R, Heuvelmans MA, et al. Lung cancer occurrence attributable to passive smoking among never smokers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2020;9(2):204-217.

Sun YQ, Chen Y, Langhammer A, Skorpen F, Wu C, Mai XM. Passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence and histologic types in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study. Eur Respir J. 2017;50(4):1700824.

Xu X, Liu Z, Xiong W, Qiu M, Kang S, Xu Q, et al. Combined and interaction effect of chlamydia pneumoniae infection and smoking on lung cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China. BMC Cancer. 2020;20(1):903.

Li T, He X, Chen Y. Mechanism of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Central South University. Medical sciences. 2017;42(10):1212-6.

Kim CH, Lee YC, Hung RJ, McNallan SR, Cote ML, Lim WY, et al. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Int J Cancer. 2014;135(8):1918-30.

Fell AKM, Svendsen MV, Kim JL, Abrahamsen R, Henneberger PK, et al. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: cross-sectional data from the general population of Telemark, Norway. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):843.

Reed RM, Dransfield MT, Eberlein M, Miller M, Netzer G, Pavlovich M, et al. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):0174354.

Grapatsas K, Leivaditis V, Tsilogianni Z, Haussmann E, Kaplunov V, Dahm M, et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, symptomatology, TNM classification of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. An overview while waiting the 8th TNM classification. Oncomedicine 2017;2:14-23.

Ridge CA, McErlean AM, Ginsberg MS. Epidemiology of lung cancer. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2013;30(2):93-8.

Cao S, Yang C, Gan Y, Lu Z. The Health Effects of Passive Smoking: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Based on Observational Epidemiological Evidence. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):0139907.

Mu L, Liu L, Niu R, Zhao B, Shi J, Li Y, et al. Indoor air pollution and risk of lung cancer among Chinese female non-smokers. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(3):439-50.

Peres J. No clear link between passive smoking and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(24):1844-6.

Lee PN, Chamberlain J, Alderson MR. Relationship of passive smoking to risk of lung cancer and other smoking-associated diseases. Br J Cancer. 1986;54(1):97-105.

Lee P. Passive smoking and lung cancer. Strength of evidence on passive smoking and lung cancer is overstated. BMJ. 1998;317(7154):346-7.