Published: 2021-04-27

Awareness about the carcinoma breast and the practices related to self- breast examination among women in developing countries

Shipra ., Reema Kumari, G. N. Singh


The aim of this review article was to evaluate the awareness of carcinoma breast and practices related to self- breast examination among women in developing countries. The study included the exploration of databases and journal websites, pub med, google scholar, and medline. The articles studied for the review were focused on english language articles from the year 2013 to 2019. This review focused on knowledge of breast cancer and its risk factors among women. Fifteen articles were reviewed on this topic from the year 2013 to 2019 in which general awareness level of breast cancer was probably better than the knowledge of risk factor, sign and symptoms. It also shows that although awareness and knowledge regarding Breast cancer was satisfactory but the knowledge of self-breast examination was low and practice of self-breast examination was least in developing countries. So, awareness programs related to breast cancer should be planned, to ensure early detection and timely treatment for better outcome.


Breast cancer, Knowledge, Risk factor, Breast self examination, Practices, Developing countries

Full Text:



Mittra I. Early detection of breast cancer in industrially developing countries. Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. 1995;S22(3):230-5.

PetroNustus W, Mikhail BI. Factors associated with breast self-examination among Jordanian women. Public Health Nurs 2002;19(4):263-71.

O'Malley MS, Fletcher SW. Screening for breast cancer with breast self-examination:a critical review. J Am Med Assoc. 1987;257(16):2197-203.

Philip J, Harris WG, Flaherty C, Joslin CA. Clinical measures to assess the practice and efficiency of breast selfexamination. Cancer. 1986;58(4):973-7.

Okobia MN, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, Osime U. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study. World J Surg Oncol. 2006;4:11.

Gupta SK. Impact of a health education intervention program regarding breast self-examination by women in a semi urban area of Madhya Pradesh, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(6):1113-7.

Solikhah S, Promthet S, Hurst C. Awareness Level about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Barriers, Attitude, and Breast Cancer Screening among Indonesian Women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019;20(3):877-84.

Dadzi R, Adam A. Assessment of knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among reproductive age women in Akatshi South district of Volta region of Ghana. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):0226925.

Gondnale Abhishek, Ingole Abhay, Mudey Prajapati, Kshatrapal. Perceptions of Women about Breast Cancer in Rural Area of Wardha District. International J Clini and Biomed Res. 2019;5(1):25-8.

Kalliguddi S, Sharma S, Gore CA. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination amongst female IT professionals in Silicon Valley of India. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8(2):568-72.

Dahiya Neha, Basu, Saurav, Singh M, Garg Suneela, Kumar Rajesh, Kohli Charu. Knowledge and Practices Related to Screening for Breast Cancer among Women in Delhi, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018;19(1):155-9.

Sama CB, Dzekem B, Kehbila J, Ekabe CJ, Vofo B, Abua NL, et al. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teacher training college in Cameroon. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28:91.

Suwarna Madhukumar, Uthraa R Thambiram, Bhavya Basavaraju, Mayur R Bedadala. A study on Awareness about Breast Carcinoma and Practice of self-examination among basic sciences, college students. J Family Med Prim Care. 2017;6(3):487-90.

Madhu B, Shankar P. Awareness and screening behaviors of breast cancer among urban women in Mysuru, India—need for breast health education program. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:2967-72.

Singh J, Sehrawat, Garima, Suman M. Knowledge, beliefs, and practices about breast cancer and its self-examination procedure among urban and rural women of district Gurdaspur, Punjab, India: a cross-sectional study. 2017;4(1):120-8.

Oladimeji KE, Tsoka-Gwegweni JM, Igbodekwe FC, Twomey M, Akolo C, Balarabe HS, et al. Knowledge, and Beliefs of Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer among Market Women in Ibadan, southwest, Nigeria. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):0140904.

Sathian B, Nagaraja SB, Banerjee I, Sreedharan J, De A, Roy B et al. Awareness of breast cancer warning signs and screening methods among female residents of Pokhara valley, Nepal. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(11):4723-6.

Gupta Adyya, Krithiga Shridhar, Dhillon Preet. A review of breast cancer awareness among women in India: Cancer literate or awareness deficit. Europ J of cancer. 2015;51:2058-66.

Makanjuola OJ, Amoo PO, Ajibade BL, Makinde OY. Breast cancer: knowledge and practice of breast self-ex¬amination among women in the rural community of Ondo State, Nigeria. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci. 2013;8(1):32-7.

Fotedar V, Fotedar S, Thakur P, Vats S, Negi A, Chanderkant L. Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and methods for its early detection among the primary health-care workers in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. J Educ Health Promot. 2019;8:265.

Isara AR, Ojedokun CI. Knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self-examination among female senior secondary school students in Abuja, Nigeria. J Prev Med Hyg. 2011;52(4):186-90.