Published: 2021-03-25

Psychological implications of COVID-19 pandemic among health care professionals of Madhya Pradesh India

Juhi Lohiya, Vrinda Saxena, Garima Bhambhani, Shweta Chaturvedi, Swapnil Jain, Annette M. Bhambal


Background: The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has loaded remarkable psychological stress on people around the world, predominantly the Health Care Professionals (HCPs). The present study aimed to assess anxiety and fear of getting infected among HCPs working during the current viral outbreak. Also, doctors' knowledge about various practice modifications to combat the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has been evaluated.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on Health care professionals (HCPs) of Madhya Pradesh India using an online survey. A pretested and pre-validated questionnaire was designed on Google forms and link generated was shared through social media. A total of 320 doctors from different cities of Madhya Pradesh have participated in the study. A Chi-Square and Spearman Correlation test was applied using SPSS version 25.

Results: Present Study reveals that more than two-thirds of HCPs (80%) were anxious and worried about the overwhelming effect of COVID-19. Among HCPs, dental professionals (61%) unfolded greater fear and anxiety level than the medical professionals. The majority of participants (92%) were updated with good knowledge and awareness of recent changes in the treatment protocols regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the implementation of modifying treatment protocol was recorded as 71%.

Conclusions: High psychosomatic implications of COVID -19 outbursts were seen in HCPs while working in their respective fields. So providing psychological first aid is a significant care component for populations that have been victims of emergencies and disasters.


Anxiety, Corona virus, Fear, Health care professionals, Practice modifications

Full Text:



Sathyamurthi A, Lakshmi R, Saraswathi S, Aarathi UC, Govarthini R. Attitude and Practice on Sars-Cov-2 among Indian Residents during Covid19 Lockdown in India. J Emerging Technologies Innovative Research (Jetir). 2020;7(7).

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, Azman AS, Reich NG, Lessler J. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172(9).

Ahmed MA, Jouhar R, Ahmed N, Adnan S, Aftab M, Zafar MS, et al. Fear and Practice Modifications among Dentists to Combat Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020;17:2821.

Ahmed N, Shakoor M, Vohra F, Abduljabbar T, Mariam Q, Rehman MA. Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Health care Professionals amid SARS-CoV-2, Corona Virus; Disease Outbreak. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36.

World Health Organization, Corona Virus. Available at:

Chang D, Xu H, Rebaza A, Sharma L, Cruz CS. Protecting health-care workers from subclinical coronavirus infection. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(3):e13.

Ather A, Patel B, Ruparel NB, Diogenes A, Hargreaves KM. Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for Clinical Dental Care. J Endodontics. 2020;46(5):584-95.

Fazel M, Hoagwood K, Stephan S, Ford T. Mental health interventions in schools in high-income countries. Lancet Psychiatr. 2014;1:377-87.

World Health Organization Director-General. WHO Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on COVID-2019 outbreak on 14 February 2020. Available at: detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-2019-outbreak-on-14-february-2020. Accessed on 3 January 2021.

Dagli RJ. Increasing immunity to fight against novel COVID-19: Noninvasive public health approach. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent. 2020;10(2):125-6.

Kamate SK, Sharma S, Thakar S. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of dental practitioners regarding the COVID-19 pandemic: A multinational study. Dent Med Probl. 2020;57(1):11-7.

Lu W, Wang H, Lin Y, Li L. Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2020; 288:112936.

Yuan S, Liao Z, Huang H, Jiang B, Zhang X, Wang Y, Zhao M. Comparison of the Indicators of Psychological Stress in the Population of Hubei Province and Non-Endemic Provinces in China During Two Weeks During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in February 2020. Med Sci Monit. 2020; 26:e923767.

Shultz JM, Cooper JL, Baingana F, Oquendo MA, Espinel Z, Althouse BM, et al. The Role of Fear-Related Behaviors in the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak. Curr Psychiatr Rep. 2016;18(11):104.

Ge Z, Yang L, Xia J, Fu X, Zhang Y. Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 and special precautions in dentistry. J. Zhejiang Univ. B. 2020; 1-8.

Asaad A, Rehab El-Sokkary, Alzamanan, El-Shafei. Knowledge and attitudes towards Middle East respiratory sydrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among health care workers in south-western Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2020;26(4):435-42.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020.

Non-COVID-19 Patients Are Paying the Price of India’s Efforts Against the Coronavirus. Available at: Accessed on 3 January 2021.

CM announces relief for poor, free treatment to covid affected. Available at: Accessed on 3 January 2021.

YaMei Bai, Chao-Cheng Lin, Chih- YuanLin, Jen Yeu-Chen, Ching-MoChue, PesusChou. Survey of Stress Reactions Among Health Care Workers Involved With the SARS Outbreak. 2004;55(9).

Ogolodom MP, Mbaba AN, Alazigha N, Erondu OF, Egbe NO. Knowledge, Attitudes and Fears of HealthCare Workers towards the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in South-South, Nigeria. Health Sci J. 2020;1:2.

Bhagvathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 among Health care workers: A cross-sectional study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 2020:6(2).

Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA. 2020;323(16):1610-2.

Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: Interim guidance. Available at:

Guo ZD, Wang ZY, Zhang SF, Li X, Li L, Li C, et al. Aerosol and Surface Distribution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Hospital Wards, Wuhan, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(7).

Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(2):183-7.

Ahmed N, Shakoor M, Vohr F, Abduljabbar T, Mariam Q, Rehman A. M. Knowledge, attitude and practice, COVID-19 and Health Care Professionals. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36.

Nemati, Marzieh , Ebrahimi, Bahareh , Nemati, Fatemeh. Assessment of Iranian Nurses’ Knowledge and Anxiety toward COVID-19 during the Current Outbreak in Iran. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2020.

Araujo MW, Andreana S. Risk and prevention of transmission of infectious diseases in dentistry. Quintessence Int. 2002;33(5):376-82.