Risk factors of hypertension in Indian adults: a systematic review (1994-2014)

Sameer H. Deshmukh, Amitava Acharyya


Hypertension is among the most common non-communicable diseases globally. In India the incidence of hypertensive cases has been on the rise. Among the last few decades not only hypertension has become common in elderly but recently many cases have been reported in the young adults in India. Despite this emerging as one of the future public health concerns, there has been limited research regarding the factors that may be responsible for causing hypertension involving young and middle-aged adults and the findings remain inconclusive. The main aim of this study was to identify the risk factors responsible for developing hypertension in Indian adults. A systematic review of the available literature around the research question was carried out. Total 9 primary studies were identified after a thorough search of databases and screening strategy. Studies published between the years 1994 to 2014 and looking into risk factors of hypertension in the Indian adult population were considered. Data from each of the 9 included studies was extracted using MS Excel spreadsheets. The main risk factors of hypertension found in adults were smoking and chewing tobacco, alcohol consumption, obesity, sedentary activities, excessive salt intake and lifestyle. Along with these risk factors illiteracy, unawareness of diseases, neglecting attitude towards health and male dominating culture were also significant risk factors. Hypertension is increasing health problem in adults in India especially in this era of urbanization. People are adapting to the western culture and hence the lifestyle is changing drastically. The main risk factors leading to hypertension are smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and excessive salt intake. This signifies that there is a need to improve the knowledge and attitudes of the people related with Hypertension prevention and management in order to live a better and healthy life.


Hypertension, India, Young adults, Risk factors

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