DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210829

Comprehensive assessment of elderly population in North India during era of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

Ananya Kumar, Amisha Agrawal, Sabina Langer

Abstract


Background: Elderly form a vulnerable population, during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic they are especially at risk due to immuno-senescence and increased number of comorbidities. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional, physical and mental status of elderly living in urban areas of north India during the lockdown period.

Methods: A questionnaire was made in Google forms based on R-MAPP and MNA Score. The assessment was carried out using telecommunication and self-assessment Google forms.

Results: Amongst the elderly people, 91% suffered from comorbidities (e.g. hypertension and diabetes) with 37% having >2 comorbidities. The 8% of elderly were   underweight, 45% were normal and 47% were overweight as per BMI. Out of total, 5% elderly were malnourished, 26% were at risk of mal nutritional and 69% had normal nutritional status. 38% of elderly observed a change in eating pattern during lockdown which included eating healthier food for many and increased snacking in some. The water intake was below 1.5 litres in 29%, 1.75-2.5 litres in 47% and >2.5 litres in 24% of the study population. Twenty percent suffered from high levels of anxiety and stress during this lock down period. Five percent of these had very high levels of stress or anxiety. Some were in the extreme range. Twenty six percent complained of loneliness.

Conclusions: The elderly population needs to be actively monitored for physical and mental wellbeing during lockdown periods by applying algorithms that effectively use telemedicine as a tool for regular check-ups.


Keywords


Elderly, Mental health, Nutrition status, SARS CoV-2

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int. Accessed on 2 September 2020.

Salzberger B, Buder F, Lampl B, Ehrenstein B, Hitzenbichler F, Hanses F. Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Internist. 2020;61:782-8.

Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3):105924.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;323:1239-42.

Krznarić Ž, Bender DV, Laviano A, Cuerda C, Landi F, Monteiro R, et al. A simple remote nutritional screening tool and practical guidance for nutritional care in primary practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clin Nutr. 2020;39:1983-7.

Singh AK, Misra A. Impact of COVID-19 and comorbidities on health and economics: Focus on developing countries and India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(6):1625-30.

Calder PC. Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. 2020;3(1):74.

Volkert D, Beck AM, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft A, Goisser S, Hooper L, et al. ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydration in geriatrics. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(1):10-47.

Banerjee D. ‘Age and ageism in COVID-19’: Elderly mental health-care vulnerabilities and needs. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102154.

Kathirvel D. Nutrition status of rural elderly in Tamil Nadu. Indian J Appl Res. 2017;7:167-70.

Kharat SM, Sagare SM, Pandve TM. A comparative study of nutritional status among elderly population residing in community dwellings and old age homes. Sch J Appl Med Sci. 2017; :3780-4.

Vedantam A, Subramanian V, Rao NV, John KR. Malnutrition in free-living elderly in rural south India: prevalence and risk factors. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13:1328-32.

Mohan V, Unnikrishnan R, Shobana S, Malavika M, Anjana RM, Sudha V. Are excess carbohydrates the main link to diabetes and its complications in Asians? Indian J Med Res. 2018;148:531-8.

Pizzini A, Aichner M, Sahanic S, Böhm A, Egger A, Hoermann G, et al. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19- a prospective analysis from the covid registry. Nutrients. 2020;11(12):E2775.

Iddir M, Brito A, Dingeo G, Fernandez Del Campo SS, Samouda H, La Frano MR, et al. Strengthening the Immune System and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress through Diet and Nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 Crisis. Nutrients. 2020;27(12):1562.

Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attinà A, Cinelli G, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey. J Translat Med. 2020;18:1-5.

Azzolino D, Saporiti E, Proietti M, Cesari M. Nutritional considerations in frail older patients with COVID-19. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;24 696-8.