Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding COVID-19 pandemic among general population in a suburban city of Western India: a cross sectional study

Jatin Badgujar, Rahul Kadam, Gaurav Sharma, Akshay Shah, Nisha Relwani


Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 pandemic among general population.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among general population residing in Navi Mumbai, India, by distributing online based predesigned, prevalidated and semi-structured survey questionnaire through social media from 20 April to 27 April, 2020. The survey instrument consisted of questions based on demographic characteristics followed by knowledge (12 questions), attitude (11 questions) and practices (5 questions). Individuals above 18 years of age, able to understand English language and willing to voluntarily consent were included in the study.

Results: A total of 817 participants were included in the study. The mean knowledge score was 10.04±1.52 with an overall accurate response rate of 83.70%. Most of the participants had positive attitude regarding COVID-19 pandemic. A positive correlation was found between level of education with mean knowledge scores as well as positive attitude towards COVID-19 using Kruskal-Wallis H test (non-parametric ANOVA) which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Majority of participants followed infection prevention guidelines including the use of facemask (94.61%), appropriate hand hygiene practices (93.26%), maintaining social distancing (97.42%) and avoiding direct personal contact through hand shake/hugging (97.42%).

Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of level of education with correct knowledge, positive attitude and appropriate practices. The information can further assist policy makers to predict success or make necessary modifications with respect to infection mitigation measures based on knowledge, attitude and practices of targeted population.


Attitude and practices, COVID-19, Knowledge, Pandemic, Survey

Full Text:



Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-207.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019 Novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China. Available at: Accessed on 1 February 2020.

World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus-China. 2020. Available at: Accessed on 1 February 2020.

Worldometer. Covid 19 coronavirus pandemic. Reported Cases and Deaths by Country, Territory, or Conveyance. Available at: Accessed on 14 June 2020.

India confirms its first coronavirus case. CNBC. 2020 January 30. Available at: Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Covid 19 statewise status. Available at: Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Coronavirus outbreak: States impose lockdown in battle against Covid-19. All you need to know. India Today. 2020 March 22. Available at: Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Ioannidis JPA. Coronavirus disease 2019: the harms of exaggerated information and non-evidence-based measures. Eur J Clin Invest. 2020;50(4):e13223.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Myth busters. Available at:

Bust fake news, ensure positive Covid-19 media coverage: Task for new govt. empowered group. The Print. 2020 April 2. Available at: Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Messaging Apps in India: 89% of internet users use mobile messaging. Messengerpeople. 2018 February 11. Available at: Accessed on 11 June 2020.

Sullivan GM, Artino AR. Analyzing and interpreting data from Likert-type scales. J Grad Med Educ. 2014;5(4):541-2.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Home. Available at: Accessed on 14 June 2020.

Panic buying goes a notch up ahead of PM Modi’s address. The Economic Times. 2020 March 20. Available at: politics-and nation/panic-buying-goes-a-notch-up-ahead-of-pm-modis-address/articleshow/74721852.cms. Accessed on 15 June 2020.

Covid-19: Northeast India Welfare Association complains of racial discrimination in Chennai. The Times of India. 2020 March 20. Available at: Accessed on 21 March 2020.

Person B, Sy F, Holton K, Govert B, Liang A; National Center for Inectious Diseases/SARS Community Outreach Team. Fear and stigma: the epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(2):358‐63.

Tao N. An analysis on reasons of SARS-induced psychological panic among students. J Anhui Inst Educ. 2003;21:78-9.

Internet usage in India- Statistics and Facts. Statista Research Department. 2020 May 8. Available at: Accessed on 10 June 2020.

Azlan AA, Hamzah MR, Sern TJ, Ayub SH, Mohamad E. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia. PLoS One 2020;15(5):e0233668.

Erfani A, Shahriarirad R, Ranjbar K, Mirahmadizadeh A, Moghadami M. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: a population-based survey in Iran. Bull World Health Organ. E-pub: 30 March 2020.

Abdelhafiz AS, Mohammed Z, Ibrahim ME. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of egyptians towards the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). J Community Health. 2020;1‐10.

Migrant workers sprayed with disinfectant in UP. The Times of India. 2020 March 30. Available at: Accessed on 7 June 2020.

Restrictions on international passenger traffic through land check posts in view of the spread of COVID-19. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF). 2020 March 13. Available at:>pdf. Accessed on 15 March 2020.

No commercial international flight to land in India from March 22 for a week. The Times of India. 2020 March 19. Available at: http://m.timesof no-commercial-international-flights-to-land-in-india-from-march-22-for-a-week/articleshow/74712749.cms. Accessed on 19 March 2020.

After trains, interstate bus services suspended till 31st March. The Economic Times. 2020 March 22. Available at: politics-and-nation/after-trains-interstate-bus-servives-suspended-till-31st-march/articleshow/ 74758323.cms. Accessed on 11 May 2020.

Schools Closed, Travel To Be Avoided, Says Centre On Coronavirus: 10 Points. NDTV. 2020 March 17. Available at: Accessed on 22 March 2020.

Panicky shoppers clear out grocery shops. The Hindu. 2020 March 22. Available at: Accessed on 29 April 2020.

No need for panic buying of milk, other dairy products, says Amul MD. The Economic Times. 2020 March 21. Available at: 74750809.cms. Accessed on 10 May 2020.

In India, the world’s biggest lockdown has forced migrants to walk hundreds of miles home. The Washington post. 2020 March 28. Available at: 03/27/a62df166-6f7d-11ea-a156-0048b62cdb51_ story.html. Accessed on 13 May 2020.

Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z, Zdimal V, van der Westhuizen HM, et al. Face masks against covid-19: an evidence review. Preprints. 2020,

Bloomfield SF, Aiello AE, Cookson B, O’Boyle C, Larson EL. The effectiveness of hand hygiene procedures in reducing the risks of infections in home and community settings including handwashing and alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35(10):S27‐64.

Fong MW, Gao H, Wong JY, Xiao J, Shiu EY, Ryu S, Cowling BJ. Nonpharmaceutical measures for pandemic influenza in nonhealthcare settings—social distancing measures. Emerging infectious diseases. 2020;26(5):976.

Van de Mortel TF. Faking it: social desirability response bias in self-report research. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2008;25(4):40-8.