Study of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in tertiary care hospital in northern India

Suchitra Garhwal, Anil Kumar Poonia, Veeha Agarwal


Background: Anemia is major health problem in developing countries with many underlying etiologies, particularly nutritional deficiencies. Pregnant women are prone to become anemic, and anemia leads to increased morbidity and  mortality in mother along with poor pregnancy outcome. This study focused on evaluation of anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in northern India.

Methods: Total 1000 pregnant women attended antenatal clinic were enrolled and were evaluated for anemia, and various red blood cell indices were studied.

Results: Prevalance of anemia in this study population was 80%, while relative prevalance of mild, moderate and severe anemia was 33.5%, 48.5% and 20% respectively. Majority of cases were because of iron deficiency anemia.

Conclusions: Prevalance of anemia is very high in pregnant women which is a major cause for poor pregnancy outcome. Measures need to be taken at various level to improve nutritional status of pregnant women.


Anemia, Nutritional, Pregnant women

Full Text:



UNICEF and Micronutrient Initiative, Vitamin and mineral deficiency: a global progress report. March 2004. Available at https:// www. unicef. org/ media/files/vmd.pdf. Accessed on 10 August 2020.

Oliver E, Olufunto K. Management of anemia in pregnancy. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria. Nigerian J Obst Gynecol. 2010;14:1.

World Health Organisation. The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy, WHO Technical reports (1992-1993). Available at https:// apps. Accessed on 02 August 2020.

Indian Council of Medical Research. Evaluation of the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme. Task Force Study. New Delhi: ICMR, 1989.

Sharma JB, Shankar M. Anemia in pregnancy. JIMSA. 2010;23(4):253.

WHO, Iron deficiency anemia: assessment, prevention and control. WHO/NHD/01.3, Geneva. 2001. Available at https:// www. /nutrition/ publications/micronutrients/anaemia_iron_deficiency/WHO_NHD_01.3/en/. Accessed on 10 July 2020.

Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, Erikson L, Gradual N. Iron status and balance during pregnancy. a critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand. 1999;78:749-57.

Goonewardene M, Shehata M, Hamad A. Anaemia in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstetri Gynaecol. 2012;26(1):3-24.

Bhalerao A, Kawthalkar A, Ghike S, Joshi S. Anemia during pregnancy: Most preventable yet most Prevalent. J South Asian Obst Gynecol. 2011;3(2):75-7.

ACC/SCN (1991) controlling bar deficiency. A report based on an ACC/SCN workshop. Gillespie S, Kevany J, Mason J. (Eds). ACC/SCN state of the art series. Nutrition policy discussion paper No. 9 Acc/Scw C/o WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Garn SM, Ridella SA, Petzold AS, Falkner F. Maternal hematological level and pregnancy outcomes. Sem Perinatal. 1981;5:115-62.

Murphy JF, Combe RG, Coles EG, Pearson JR. Relation of haemoglobin levels in first and second trimester to outcome of pregnancy. Lancet. 1986:1992-95.

Rohilla M, Ravenndram A, Dhaliwal LK, Chopra S. Severe anemia in pregnancy: a tertiary hospital experience from northern India. J Obst Gynecol. 2010;30(7):694-6.

NICE. Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. National collaborating centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. Clinical guideline 2008.

FAO/WHO. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Forty-first report of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1993. (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 837).