DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20205183

Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the mental health of adolescents in India and their perceived causes of stress and anxiety

Brinda Prasanna Kumar, Adarsh Eregowda, Sahana Giliyaru

Abstract


Background: Outbreak of the 2019 novel Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unanticipated psychological impact globally. Mental health of adolescents also requires significant attention. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the psychological stress and anxiety among adolescents in India during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify the most important precursors.

Methods: An online survey was undertaken where adolescents in the age group of 10 to 19 years were invited to participate with a self-administered questionnaire. A snowball sampling strategy was used, focusing on recruiting adolescents living in Bangalore, India. Perceived stress scale-4 (PSS-4) and Generalized anxiety disorder-2 (GAD-2) Scale were used. Questionnaires were anonymous to ensure confidentiality and reliability of data. Data collection took place over five days

Results: 156 (52.0%) had a high PSS-4 score of ≥8 and 132 (44.0%) respondents had a high GAD-2 score of ≥3. Female gender and age were found to be statistically significant detrimental factors of stress and anxiety respectively (p<0.05). Academic delay and uncertainty about the future were found to be the most significant causes of perceived psychological distress among adolescents.

Conclusions: Majority of the adolescents experienced varying degrees of stress and anxiety due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings have both clinical and policy implications. The findings of our study indicate the need to identify adolescents as high-risk groups to ensure timely targeted psychological interventions and stress mitigating measures.


Keywords


Mental health, COVID-19, Adolescents, Psychological distress, Stress, Anxiety

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rolling Updates on Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they happen. Accessed on 08 October, 2020.

UNESCO. (2020). School closures caused by Coronavirus (Covid-19). https://en.unesco.org /covid19/educationresponse. Accessed on 10 August, 2020.

Brown BB, Larson J. Contextual influences on adolescent development. Peer relationships in adolescents. In: R. M. L. Steinberg (Editor), Handbook of adolescent psychology, volume 2, 3rd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 2009;74-103.

Albert D, Chein J, Steinberg L. Peer Influences on Adolescent Decision Making. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2013;22(2):114-20.

Lewinsohn PM, Clarke GN, Seeley JR, Rohde P. Major depression in community adolescents: age at onset, episode duration, and time to recurrence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994;33(6):809-18.

Kumar K S, Akoijam BS. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur. Indian J Community Med. 2017;42:94-6.

Mathew N, Khakha DC, Qureshi A. Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India. Indian J Pediatr. 2015;82:809-81.

Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V. National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015–16: prevalence, patterns, and outcomes. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences. 2016;129. Accessed on 10 August, 2020.

Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102083.

Hu D, Kong Y, Li W. Frontline nurses' burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. E Clinical Medicine. 2020;24:100424.

Orsini A, Corsi M, Santangelo A. Challenges and management of neurological and psychiatric manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients. Neurol Sci. 2020;10.1007.

Lekamwasam R, Lekamwasam S. Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Health and Wellbeing of Older People: A Comprehensive Review. Ann Geriatr Med Res. 2020;10.4235/agmr.20.0027.

Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J. Health Soc Behav. 1983;24:385-396.

Vallejo MA, Vallejo-Slocker L, Fernández-Abascal EG, Mañanes G. Determining Factors for Stress Perception Assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) in Spanish and Other European Samples. Front. Psychol. 2018:9:37.

Herrero J, Meneses J. Short Web-based versions of the perceived stress (PSS) and Center for Epidemiological studies-Depression (CESD) Scales: a comparison to pencil and paper responses among internet users. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2004;22:830-46.

Mañanes G, Vallejo MA, Vallejo-Slocker L. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language. Gac Sanit. 2016;30:18-23.

Donker T, van Straten A, Marks I, Cuijpers P. Quick and easy self-rating of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: validity of the Dutch web-based GAD-7, GAD-2 and GAD-SI. Psychiatry Res. 2011;188:58-64.

Plummer F, Manea L, Trepel D, McMillan D. Screening for anxiety disorders with the GAD-7 and GAD-2: a systematic review and diagnostic metaanalysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2016;39:24-31.

Mei SL, Yu JX, He BW, Li JY. Psychological investigation of university students in a university in Jilin province. Med Soc. 2011;24(05):84-6.

Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102083.

Lim GY. Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014. Sci. Rep. 2018;8:2861.

Cornine A. Reducing nursing student anxiety in the clinical setting: an integrative review. Nurs. education Perspectives. 2020;10.

Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res. 2020;287:112934.