The unmet needs of PCPNDT act in the women of the general population in North India

Neha Pruthi Tandon, Sumitra Bachani, Shreya Kaura, Rupali Dewan, Renu Arora


Background: Government of India has taken measures to stabilize the sex ratio by introducing Pre-Conception and Pre-natal diagnostic techniques act (PCPNDT). Despite various amendments, awareness about the act amongst women appears suboptimal. Present study was aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding PCPNDT act in women attending tertiary care hospital and to determine the lacunae regarding its implementation.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted by Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Total of 1000 women were included and a pre-designed questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details and to assess the knowledge and attitude towards the PCPNDT Act. Data was analyzed using Statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) 16.0.

Results: In the present study, 75% women were in the age group 21-40 years and were Hindus. Only 25% (n=256) knew about PC-PNDT act. Majority of the subjects (n=880, 88%) had no knowledge that the doctors are also punishable. Attitude of women was also not a benchmark as 40 % women were keen to know the sex of their unborn child and 66% of the participants said that having a male was important for the family.

Conclusions: The knowledge about PC‑PNDT act was below the expected standards. The attitude of women towards sex determination of unborn child and sociocultural influences favoring male child are still deeply rooted in society. Active involvement of media, social workers and health staff for dissemination of information to the public and to bring change in attitude of women is the need of the hour.


Preconception and prenatal diagnostic technique act, Sex ratio, Sex determination, Knowledge

Full Text:



Census of India. Gender composition 2011. Accessed on 09 August, 2020.

Handbook of PCPNDT Act and Rules with Amendments. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India; 2006. Accessed on 09 August, 2020.

Raghunath D, Patidar AK, Dixit S, Shukla H Sharma K, Gothwal M et al. A Cross - Sectional Study to Assess the Awareness of PCPNDT Act and the Term Sex-Ratio among Married Women of Cosmopolitan City of Central India. JMSCR. 2018;6(5):904-9.

Deshpande SR, Rathod PG, Mankar SB, Narlawar UW. Awareness and perception regarding PCPNDT Act and gender preference among mothers of under-five attending immunization clinic Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016;5(9):1878-82.

Sharmila V, Babu TA, Singh D. Knowledge, awareness and attitude about prenatal sex determination, pre conception and pre‑natal diagnostic techniques act among pregnant women in the South Indian union territory of Puducherry. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016;5:3470-4.

Shidhaye PR, Giri PA, Nagaonkar SN, Shidhaye RR. Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. J Educ Health Promot. 2012;1:36.

Puri S, Bhatia V, Swami HM. Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among married women in slums of Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med. 2007;1:60-2.

Sarkar I, Dasgupta A. Gender preference and perception of PNDT: A community-based study among ever-married women in a rural area of West Bengal. IAIM 2015;2:183-91.

Srivastav S, Kariwal P, Kapilasrami MC. A community-based study on awareness and perception on gender discrimination and sex preference among married women (in reproductive age group) in a rural population of district Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. Nat J Com Med. 2011;2:273-6.

Gupta RK, Singh P, Hussain S, Kumari R, Langer B, Gupta R. PC-PNDT act: perspectives of medical undergraduates in a Sub-Himalayan state. Int J Reprod Contracep Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6(8):3545-49.

Palo LB, Chauhan NS, Parvathi T, Chauhan RC. Awareness about PCPNDT act among undergraduate students of a medical college in Puducherry. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015;4(5):1485-88.

Sidhu TK, Kumar S, Kaur PA. Study of knowledge and attitude of medical undergraduate students regarding prenatal sex determination and female feticide. Indian J Matern Child Health. 2011;13:2-6.